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A hundred and fifty years ago girls matured sexually at age 16. Today they do so at _____ years of age.
__________________ is formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for.
Which of the following statements about children in the U.S. is false?
In at least half the states in the U.S., more than 40 percent of black children are poor
According to the text, about one third of U.S. households with children experience one of three housing problems. Which of the following is not one of these three problems?
housing without nearby recreational facilities
Adults 25 years of age and older with less than a high school diploma earn ______ percent less than those who have earned a high school diploma.
According to the findings of the most recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey, about _____ percent of high school students had smoked cigarettes at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
According to the text, youths who have been arrested four or more times and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts are known as the:
"chronic juvenile offenders"
A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is:
Which of the following statements about children in the Middle Ages is false?
The parent-child relationship was particularly close and loving.
Voltaire's, Rousseau's, and Locke's vision produced a period known as the _____________________, which stressed a humanistic view of life, freedom, family, reason, and law.
Under the _______________ movement, children were placed in the care of adults who trained them in specific skills.
In a famous 1827 case, a duke's children were taken away from him in the name and interest of parens patriae, because:
his scandalous behavior
Which of the following best describes the operating philosophy of the juvenile court under parens patriae?
best interests of the child
During the Middle Ages in Great Britain, the chancery courts:
did not have jurisdiction over children charged with criminal conduct
"__________________" minors is the original early designation of youths who violate the law because of their minority status.
Parents may be held civilly responsible for the conduct of their minor children, under the concept of:
True or False - Kids, whose parents divorce, increase their involvement in delinquency, especially if they have a close bond with the custodial parent.
True or False - Under early British jurisprudence, children under the age of seven were legally incapable of committing crimes.
True or False - Most states define minor child as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly thirteen years of age.
True or False - Unlike adult defendants, children do not have the right to consult an attorney or be free from self-incrimination.
True or False - According to the text, status offenders are never detained or incarcerated with delinquents.
True or False - Research studies have consistently found that strict enforcement of curfew laws actually increase juvenile crime rates during curfew hours.
True or False - Since 1990, there have been no cases in which parents have been ordered to serve time in jail because their children have been truant from school.
The UCR uses three methods to express crime data. Which of the following is not one of these three methods?
The actual number of crimes for which the suspects were convicted.
________________ are questionnaire or survey techniques that ask subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
For which of the following acts are females more likely than males to be taken into custody?
In terms of race and delinquency, the official statistics show that:
minority youths are arrested for serious criminal behavior at a rate that is disproportionate to their representation in the population.
Which of the following has been linked with high-rate persistent offending in variety of cultures, time periods and offender types?
age of onset
Which of the following statements about age and delinquency is false?
As juvenile delinquents mature, they become less aware of the risks that accompany crime.
Chronic recidivists made up about _____ percent of both Philadelphia cohorts in research conducted by Wolfgang and his associates.
In the Pennsylvania birth cohort follow-up, it was found that chronic offenders had a(n)_____ percent chance of becoming adult offenders.
According to the text, which of the following is not a childhood risk factor for persistent delinquency?
small family size
Childhood risk factors for persistent delinquency include all of the following, except:
True or False - Research shows that the more kids watch TV, the more often they get into violent encounters.
True or False - Most self-report studies indicate that the number of children who break the law is far smaller than official statistics would lead us to believe.
True or False - According to the text, girls are more likely than boys to be arrested as runaways.
According to choice theorists, offenders:
are rational actors who choose to crime because they believe their actions will be beneficial
According to __________________ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions such as temperament, personality, hormones, or genetics.
According to the concept of ________________, if offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal acts.
Which of the following statements about specific deterrence is false?
The association between punishment and desistance is logical, and there is plenty of evidence that punitive measures alone deter future delinquency
A geographic location that is known to be the scene of repeated delinquent activity is called a:
Research which links antisocial behavior to a person's diet draws from which theoretical perspective?
Contemporary biochemical factors related to delinquency include each of the following except:
minimal brain dysfunction
Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD?
The individual sustains interest in play activities
The _______________________ assumes that LD leads to poor school behavior which leads to frustration, negative self image, and acting out.
school failure rationale
Which of the following theories best reflects the branch of psychology that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood?
A psychological condition producing mood swings between wild elation and deep depression is called:
Erik Erikson coined the term ____________________ to refer to a psychological state in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles.
__________________ hold that children will model their behavior according to the reactions they receive from others.
It is estimated that the average child views ____________ TV murders before finishing elementary school.
People commit crimes when they model their behavior after others they see being rewarded for the same acts; behavior is reinforced by rewards and extinguished by punishment. Which of the following theories does this best illustrate?
True or False - Classical criminology suggests that delinquent acts, especially violent ones, are not rational choices but uncontrollable, irrational behaviors.
True or False - Situational crime prevention aims to reduce opportunities to commit crimes by increasing the effort or the risks of criminal activity or by reducing the rewards attached to delinquent acts.
True or False - Police crackdowns seem to have an effective short-term strategy, but their effect begins to decay once the initial shock effect wears off.
True or False - People with pathological traits, such as abnormal personality, are at lower risk for crime over the life course.
True or False - Children with ADHD are more likely to use illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes in adolescence.
True or False - Twin studies and adoption studies provide no evidence that delinquent-producing traits may be inherited.
True or False - Cognitive theory contends that the choice to commit delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment; if people believe illegal behavior will result in severe sanctions, they will choose not to commit crimes.
Which of the following statements is false?
Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate increases
Which of the following is not one of the critical social factors believed to affect delinquent behaviors presented in the text?
The _______________________ theories tie delinquency rates to socioeconomic conditions and cultural values; areas that experience high levels of poverty and social disorganization will also have high delinquency rates.
________________________ is the process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one from one generation to the next.
Relative deprivation refers to a sense of:
injustice when the poor and the rich live in close physical proximity to one another
Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?
communities no longer have the capability of regulating the conduct of residents
Residents of cohesive communities develop a sense of ___________________; people know one another, develop interpersonal ties, mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order.
This source of strain outlined by Robert Agnew can be caused by the loss of girlfriend, moving to a new neighborhood, or the divorce of parents.
removal of positively valued stimuli
"Delinquency is a result of youths' desire to conform to lower-class neighborhood values that conflict with those of the larger society." This statement most closely reflects:
cultural deviance theory
Social control theories see delinquency as the result of:
an individual having weakened bonds to family, school, and peers
If a youth continually receives negative feedback from significant others, they will interpret this image as accurate and their behavior will begin to conform to these negative expectations. This process is called a:
Which of the following theories centers around a view of society in which an elite class uses the law as a means of meeting threats to its status?
Which of the following would best describe a prevention effort advocated by a social structure theorist?
community redevelopment including educational programs and job training
True or False - For most people, membership in the underclass is temporary often lasting a few months.
True or False - According to social disorganization theory, all people have the potential to become delinquents, but their bonds to conventional society prevent them from violating the law.
True or False - According to the text, fear of teen crime is much higher in affluent suburbs than in disorganized neighborhoods.
True or False - Relative deprivation occurs when pockets of extreme poverty are socially and physically isolated from the rest of society.
True or False - According to cultural deviance theory, obedience to the norms of their lower-class culture puts people in conflict with the norms of the dominant culture.
True or False - Social learning theory stresses that kids learn both how to commit crimes and the attitudes needed to support the behavior.
True or False - According to social control theory, a person's bond to society prevents him or her from violating social rules; if the bond weakens, the person is free to commit delinquent acts.
True or False - Social control theory stresses that kids learn both how to commit crimes and the attitudes needed to support the behavior.
True or False - A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a youth receives negative feedback from significant others, the youth interprets this feedback as accurate, and his/her behavior conforms to this negative expectation.
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