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conective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed of the primary tissues

function of the connective tissue

binding and supporting , protecting, insulting, storing and reserve fuel and trasporting substances in the body.

3 characteristic of the connective tissue

common origin:all connective tissues arise from mesenchyme (an embryotic tissue)
Degrees of vascularity: connective tissues run the gamut vascularity. Cartillage are avascular
Extracellular matrix: all other primary tissues are composed mainly of cells, but connective tissue are largely nonliving.
extracellular matrix: separates, often widely , the living cells of the tissue.

What is the main elements of the connective tissue?

ground substance,fibers and cells. Together they make up the extracellular matrix.

Ground substance structure

is the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contain the fibers. it is composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans.

Cell adhesion proteins structure

Serve mainly as a connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach to the matrix

connective tissue fibers structure

Provide support.Tree typer of fibers are found in the connective tissue matrix: collagen, elastic and reticular fiber


Collagen fibers is the strong and most abundant .

Colagen fiber

contructed of the fibrous protein collagen. Goes into extracellular space

Elastic fibers

are long, thin fibers that form branchs in the extracellular matrix. Are found in the skin, lungs and blood vessels walls.

Reticular fibers

Are short, fine collagenous fibers with a slightly different

Primary blast cell types by connective tissue class are:

connective tissu proper :fibrolast
cartilage: chondroblast
bone: osteoblast


Connective tissue houses other types of cell like: Fat cell (store nutrients)
White blood cells:(neutrophils, eosinophils,lymphocytes. Response to injury
Mast cells

Connective tissue proper

has wo subclasses, loose connective tissue and Dense connective tissue

Loose connective tissue is

Areolar, adipose, and reticular

Dense connective tissue is

dense regular, dense irregular,and elastic


Areolar connective tissue
Functions: supporting and biding other tissues
Holding body fluids
Defending against infection
Storing nutrients as fat in fat cells


The most obvious structural feature of this tissue is the loose arrangement of its fibers.


Areolar connective tissue provides a reservoir of water and salts for surrounding body tissues.


when body region is inflamed, the areolar tissue in the area soaks up excess fluids like a sponge and the afected area swells and becomes puffy, an condition called edema


Areolar connective tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body.

Adipose tissue

Is simular to areolar tissue in structure and function,but nutrients storing ability is much greater

reticular connective tissue proper:dense connec. reticular

resembles areolar connective tissue , but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers, which form a delicate network along along which fibroblast called reticular cells


Adipose tissue is richly vascularized , indicating activity. without the fat stores in our adipose tissue we could not live for more than a few days without eating.


Adipose tissue is certainly abundant. it constitutes 18% of an average person's body weight


Adipose tissue helps prevent heat loss from the body

Reticular connective tissue loose

houses of retiicular fibers in a typical loose ground substance, reticular cells lie on the network

Reticular tissue function:

fibers form a soft internal skeleton(stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells , mast cellss an microphages


location: lymphoid organ( bone narrow , spleen)

Dense connective tissue , dense regular(proper)

Primarily parallel collagen fibers , a few elastic fibers, major cell type is the fibroblast.


Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles , attaches bones to bones,


tendons , most ligaments, apaneuroses

Dense connec. tissue dense irregular

Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers , some elastic fibers, fibroblast is the major cell type


withstands tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strengh


joints, dermis of the skin, submucosa of digestive tract.

Adipose tissue function

insulation, energy storage , shock absorber

dense regular tissue

fibers are in one direction allawing movement in one direction

dense irregular

fiber are also organized but in different direction, allowing movements in different directions


the el like substance found inside of tissue cells

type of cartilage found in the knee joint is


blast cells

young cell


new cells

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