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a mental screen or stage on which things appear to be presented for viewing by your mind's eye
the timing of conscious will
experiments suggest that brain wave activity precedes willed movement but that the reported time of consciously willing movement follows the brain activity
four basic properties of consciousness
intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience of consciousness
people wearing headphones are presented with different messages in each ear; when you focus on one set of words, you often don't realize changes in the second set of words
cocktail party phenomenon
people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby; more inclined to select information with special interest to you
consciousness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
rebound effect of thought suppression
the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
ironic processes of mental control
ironic errors occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself produce them (e.g. in the attempt not to think of a white bear, the mind is searching for a white bear)
Frued's dynamic unconscious
an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces (e.g. sleeping with a parent)
a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from the consciousness and keeps them in the unconsciousness
the mental processes that are not experienced by the person but that give rise to the person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior
thought or behavior are influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
altered state of consciousness
a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind
a person arises and walks around while asleep (usually during slow-wave sleep)
dreams are produced when the mind attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs in the brain during sleep
chemicals that influence the consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system
the tendency for larger drug doses to be required over time to achieve the same effect
substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system (e.g. alcohol, toxic inhalants); sedative or calming effect that produces sleep in high doses and can kill you in extremely high doses
alcohol effects are produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
balanced placebo design
behavior is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus
alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels (e.g. amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine); causes insomnia, aggression, and paranoia
narcotics or opiates
drugs derived from opium that are capable or relieving pain (e.g. opium, heroine, morphine, methadone, codeine); very addictive for a very long time
endorphines or endogenous opiates
neurotransmitters that are closely related to opiates; naturally reduce pain; when people use narcotics, brain's endorphin receptors are artificially flooded
drugs that alter sensation and perception, often causing hallucinations (e.g. LDS, PCP, and ketamine); dramatic and unpredictable changes, but unlikely to be addictive
the leaves and buds of the hemp plant that contain THC; mildly hallucinogenic, affects short-term memory and motor skills and coordination; low addiction potential, no tolerance, maybe psychological dependence
an altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring involuntarily
the reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are hypnotically susceptible
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