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50 terms

psych: ch. 8

STUDY
PLAY
consciousness
a person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
Cartesian theater
a mental screen or stage on which things appear to be presented for viewing by your mind's eye
phenomenology
how things seem to the conscious person
problem of other minds
the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
mind/body problem
the issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body
the timing of conscious will
experiments suggest that brain wave activity precedes willed movement but that the reported time of consciously willing movement follows the brain activity
four basic properties of consciousness
intentionality, unity, selectivity, and transience of consciousness
dichotic listening
people wearing headphones are presented with different messages in each ear; when you focus on one set of words, you often don't realize changes in the second set of words
cocktail party phenomenon
people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby; more inclined to select information with special interest to you
unity of consciousness
the consciousness' resistance to division
intentionality of consciousness
quality of the consciousness being directed toward an object
selectivity of consciousness
capacity to include some objects and not others
transience of consciousness
consciousness' tendency to change
minimal consciousness
consciousness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
full consciousness
know and are able to report your mental state
self-consciousness
the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
mental control
attempt to change conscious state of mind
thought suppression
the conscious avoidance of a thought
rebound effect of thought suppression
the tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
ironic processes of mental control
ironic errors occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself produce them (e.g. in the attempt not to think of a white bear, the mind is searching for a white bear)
Frued's dynamic unconscious
an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces (e.g. sleeping with a parent)
Frued's repression
a mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from the consciousness and keeps them in the unconsciousness
cognitive unconscious
the mental processes that are not experienced by the person but that give rise to the person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior
subliminal perception
thought or behavior are influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
altered state of consciousness
a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind
circadian rhythm
a naturally occurring 24 hour cycle
REM sleep
a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity
electooculograph (EOG)
a device to measure eye movements
insomnia
difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep
sleep apnea
a disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep
somnambulism (sleepwalking)
a person arises and walks around while asleep (usually during slow-wave sleep)
narcolepsy
a disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities
sleep paralysis
experience of waking up unable to move (sometimes associated with narcolepsy)
night terrors
abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal (usually in boys aged 3-7)
activation-synthesis model
dreams are produced when the mind attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs in the brain during sleep
psychoactive drugs
chemicals that influence the consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system
drug tolerance
the tendency for larger drug doses to be required over time to achieve the same effect
depressants
substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system (e.g. alcohol, toxic inhalants); sedative or calming effect that produces sleep in high doses and can kill you in extremely high doses
expectancy theory
alcohol effects are produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
balanced placebo design
behavior is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus
alcohol myopia
alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
stimulants
substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels (e.g. amphetamines, ecstasy, cocaine); causes insomnia, aggression, and paranoia
narcotics or opiates
drugs derived from opium that are capable or relieving pain (e.g. opium, heroine, morphine, methadone, codeine); very addictive for a very long time
endorphines or endogenous opiates
neurotransmitters that are closely related to opiates; naturally reduce pain; when people use narcotics, brain's endorphin receptors are artificially flooded
hallucinogens
drugs that alter sensation and perception, often causing hallucinations (e.g. LDS, PCP, and ketamine); dramatic and unpredictable changes, but unlikely to be addictive
marijuana
the leaves and buds of the hemp plant that contain THC; mildly hallucinogenic, affects short-term memory and motor skills and coordination; low addiction potential, no tolerance, maybe psychological dependence
hypnosis
an altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring involuntarily
hypnotic analgesia
the reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are hypnotically susceptible
posthypnotic amnesia
the failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
meditation
the practice of intentional contemplation