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AP HuGo Chapter 6 Key Terms
2012-2013 Mrs. Goodall AP HuGo
Terms in this set (53)
The range or spectrum of environmental conditions and habitat characteristics that support the normal activity of an organism. The space we live in from day to day; that part of action space with which an individual interacts on a daily basis.
A belief that objects, such as Animals, plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
A religion where people observe and worship multiple things that they believed have trapped souls in them, some of these objects include rocks, plants, or anything that is found in the natural environment.
A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
A conceptual subdivision of something, a division of an organization, operating locally
A family of beliefs and practices considered by most to be a religion and is based on the teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama.
A social structure, or system, in which classes are determined by heredity.
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of K'ung-tzu.
A theory concerning the coming into existence or origin of the universe, or about how reality came to be.
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body. Universalizing religions are broken down into branches, these, and sects.
The dispersion of Jews living outside Israel.
The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church. Each bishop administers a separate one of these and there are several thousands of them.
Eastern Orthodox Church
The world's second largest Christian communion, estimated to number 300 million members. It sees itself as the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus Christ and his Apostles almost 2,000 years ago.
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated. An example of this is Hinduism in India, and some of the sacred phenomena throughout the landscape. Also usually tied to a specific group of people who share similar characteristics
A Chinese philosophy that governs spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy.
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect). This is one of the most important ways in which a group can maintain a distinctive cultural identity.
The deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group.
During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews. This area was frequently surrounded by walls, and the gates were locked at night to prevent escape. It's now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
The Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime.
A term for a kindred, or local worship group, in the neopaganism religion Ásatr. In Greek Mythology, Hestia is the goddess of this. In Ancient Persia, according to Zoroastrian customs, every house was expected to have a one for offering sacrifices and prayers.
A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
It is the world's oldest extant religion, with a billion followers, which makes it the world's third largest religion. It's is a conglomeration of religious, philosophical, and cultural ideas and practices that originated in India, characterized by the belief in reincarnation, one absolute being of multiple manifestations, the law of cause and effect, following the path of righteousness, and the desire for liberation from the cycle of births and deaths.
The boundaries between the world's major faiths.
Boundaries within a major religion.
This religion means to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the zakat, to fast in Ramadhan, and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.
A holy war undertaken by Muslims against unbelievers.
One of the oldest religions still existing today. It began as the religion of the small nation of the Hebrews, and through thousands of years of suffering, persecution, dispersion, and occasional victory, has continued to be a profoundly influential religion and culture. Today, 14 million people identify themselves as Jewish. This modern religion is a complex phenomenon that incorporates both a nation and a religion, and often combines strict adherence to ritual laws with a more liberal attitude towards religious belief.
A tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer.
An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god.
A religion that is based on the belief of one God, an example of a religion like this is Christianity.
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes. A long journey or search of great moral significance.
Belief in more than one deity (god/goddess).
A religion that believes in the worship of multiple deities (gods/goddesses), an example of a religion like this is the old Roman Pagan religion.
Religions that rejects the authority of the Pope and attempts to reform both the rituals and hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. In New England many sects flourished including (but not limited to) Baptists, Calvinists, Anglicans, Methodists and Quakers.
A set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a supernatural agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs
Actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society done for religious purposes.
Belief in a strict adherence to a set of morals or rules in a religion.
Roman Catholic Church
The world's largest Christian church. With more than a billion members, over half of all Christians and more than one- sixth of the world's population.
A place that is thought of as holy to a particular religion
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
A doctrine that rejects religions and religious considerations.
A range of beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spiritual world.
Muslim/Islamic law that is legal and it also determines personal and moral conduct. Based on the Quran.
The second largest denomination of Islam
A religion native to Japan, that is characterized by veneration of nature spirits and ancestors, and with a lack of formal dogma.
Time when the sun is farthest from the equator.
One of the two main branches of Islam, commonly described as orthodox, and differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs.
A Chinese philosophical system based on the teachings of Lao-tzu.
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
A movement originally for the establishment and now for the protection and development of what is now known as Israel.
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