72 terms

Chapter 3: The Ability to Receive and Send Nonverbal Signals

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Terms in this set (...)

is considered a basic intellectual capacity distinct from other cognitive abilities
social intelligence
the ability to be with others
social competence
the ability to judge emotional messages, to regulate our own emotions, and to use emotions wisely to guide thought and action
emotional intelligence
a person needs to notice characteristics of others in order to interpret them correctly?
True
We grasp things from only the beginning?
Falls
Social Communication skills rest only on nonverbal cues?
False, it also needs verbal meanings
What did Kurt Danziger argue?
that social interaction is impossible without a subtle and unspoken nonverbal negotiation of the respective roles to be played by the participant
most of our ability to send and receive nonverbal signals is derived from?
on-the-job training
how do we learn our nonverbal skills?
imitation, modeling, and adapting our responses to the feedback of others
when do out nonverbal messages start? How?
as babies; mimicry of adult facial expressions
within the first few days of life, infants can mimic what? Few months?
mouth opening and tongue protrusion; lip protrusion, finger movements, brow movements, and some facial expressions
Experts believe that an innate reportorial of facial expressions, innate imitative ability, and selective reinforcement by caretakers combine to produce in a child an understanding of the socially agree on meanings of different nonverbal cues, and that these processes enable people to label emotions in themselves and others
True
the nonverbal and other social skills are strongly rooted in learning, which explains what?
how each person differs in emotion and interaction
There was a study of Rhesus monkey by Harlow. Explain it
Monkeys in isolation were incapable of showing emotions
feedback from others as we grow up does not have to mention our behavior explicitly, but also?
be a response to our behavior
Through feedback we can?
increase our awareness of ourselves and others
Feedback in the form of telling participants when their nonverbal judgments are right or wrong which is a perfect way to?
improve nonverbal abilities
participants profited the most when learning to judge emotional expressions from a culture dissimilar to their own, is what study?
Elfenbein's training study
Who was more accruate at judging nonverbal cues, parents or married people?
parents
is there a positive, negative, or neutral correlation between experiences requiring communication in the nonverbal medium and performance on tests of decoding nonverbal cues?
positive
What did Argyle discover?
socially skilled behavior is analogous to skilled motor behavior
The different elements of social behavior are hierarchical, the lower is? the higher is?
automatic and habitual; strategic in nature
a major category of behavior emphasized in social skills training is?
reinforcement
reinforcers can be what?
nonverbal and verbal
reinforcers who use praise and reinforcers who use smiles and nods?
verbal, and nonerbal
Is it good to have more accruate knowledge of nonverbal communication?
Yes, both individuals and society will benefit when communication skills are better
will greater knowledge of cues and more developed skills help people be less vulnerable to manipulation?
Yes
How would people still be taken advantage of?
when they believe that nonverbal communication is spontaneous
what has most research on nonverbal communication skills focus on?
the sending and receiving of nonverbal cues through emotion
defines as how much positivity, attentiveness, and coordination are experienced by people toward each other when they interacti
rapport
what is another interpersonal accuracy?
the ability to recognize what social or identity group people belong to?
include their taste in music and recreation, their self-representation on personal web sites, their clothing choices, and the manner in which they decorate and maintain theri living or working space
social footprint
facial encoding
people who are videotaped (with or without knowledge) to express emotions or attitudes iwth their face
vocal encoding
sender may be asked to recite a standard sentence with emotionally neutral content or to recite the alphabet while experience, and thereby re-experience the emotion felt at the time. The message will be altered in loudness and pitch
what is thin slices?
show long videos of people interaction or one ssecond pictures of facial expression
Robert Rosenthal developed a multichannel test of nonverbal decoding ability known as?
Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity
PONS test criterqua
45 min video that contains 220 auditory and visual segments to which viewers are asked to respond which is a 2 second excerpt for a white American woman expressing 5 scences of positive-dominant, submissive, and negative-dominant, submissive
Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy or DANVA
based on recognition of pure emotions show out of context. It includes test of facial, vocal, and postural expression of adult and child expressor
shows still photos of facial expressions of white American and Japanese adults at extremely short exposure and then they are sandwiched between two neutral expressions of each expressor so that the viewer sees the sequence of neutral-emotion-eutral in rapid succession
Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test or JACBART
What does JACBART investigates?
sensitivty to micromomentary expressions
Interpersonal Perception Task
expressors act our different scences or emotions
what does IPT emphasize more?
spontaneous behavior
Empathic accuracy paradigm
one method based on naturalistic stimuli in which a person' ability to "mind read" what another person is thinking and feeling at particular moments in a conversation is measured by a later review
research show that first impression of personality, based on superficial observation and no actual interaction, agree impressively among observers and with the targets own self-descriptions.
true
the cues that people think they use when making noverbal judgments are oftn not the ones actually relevant to the judgment they are makng?
True
test of noverbal Cue Knowledge (TONCK)
measures knowledge with 81 items marked true or false and the results are scored based on finding established through published research
one of the best documented correlates of nonverbal sensitivity is?
gender
who scores higher in judging the nonverbal cues, remembering apperance, and TONCK
women
___ are especially good at judging facial cues relative to toher channels and when emotion of some sort is being judged
females
males have the advantage when?
males are judging other males
George Eliot's Adam Bede
describes a scence in which a woman corretly concludes that two your people arei n love based on her observation that the girl trembles in the boy's presence
by 7 months, babies knew what?
facial cues that go with vocal cues
As you are younger? As you are older?
harder to determine some nonverbal cues, but then you get better. When you get older, it goes backwards!
People who score higher are more? Including children?
Perfectly popular! Even children!
Does a person score better when decoding different races?
No
Does watching more than 7 hours of tv help children to decode better?
Yes
what are the three people who score the highest on the PONS test?
actors, students study nonverbal behavior, and students studying visual art
do children that experience something horrible are better at detecting happiness and other pleasent emotions?
nope
Groups with various kinds of psychological disturbance often have a generalized decoding deficit, but can it be specific?
Yes
is a disorder largely defined in terms of deficitent verbal, and espeically nonverbal, communiccation and an extreme inability to relate to toerh human beings
Autism
people's moods can influence how they perceive others' behavior
true
a person's nonverbal sending is a mixture of?
spontaneous cues and more deliberate or intentional ones
People, when expressing emotions, can look the part or be unable to control certain emotions due to personality.
True
can emotion affect your health?
Yes
Accuracy in expressing emotions deliberately increases through childhood, but then?
it levels off
measures expressiveness through self-reported statements
Affective Communication Test (ACT)
girls are better at spontaneous facial expressions and occasionaly boys during pre-school years before they are constricted to male gender roles
True
self-monitors
people who are very aware of how they should be acting in various situation and are willing to do so to advance their self interest
people with alexithymia and schizophrenia are expression deficit
True
happiness in a marriage is all due to the ability for the husband to communicate nonverbally
true
So explain how living in a certain household can affect how you decode and encode emotions
expressive house = better encoding skills
unexpressive house = better decoding skills
5 things to know to be an observer of a situation
find out about the participants, the setting of the interaction, the purpose of thei nteraction, the social behavior, and the frequency and duration of behavior