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American History Chapter 18 & 19
Terms in this set (33)
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
something (as property) held by one party (the trustee) for the benefit of another (the beneficiary)
a company with controlling shares in other companies
Ida M. Tarbell
journalist who published a devastating but factual expose of the Standard Oil Company
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
businesses owned by joint stock companies or corporations
John Pierpont Morgan
United States financier and philanthropist (1837-1913)
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Stephen J. Field
Williams 1837: Supreme Court Justice, Fraternity founder
Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad
- Supreme Court case dealing with taxation of railroad properties.
- corporations are considered to be people
- entitled to protection under theFourteenth Amendment
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
Jane Cunningham Croly
Newspaper reporter who founded the Sorosis Club; fought for woman's rights esp. women journalists
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
an organization that blamed alcohol for crime, poverty, and violence against women and children, and fought against it.
a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the STALWART faction of the Republican Party.
James G. Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
James A. Garfield
the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.
Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Greenback Labor Party
Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor
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