59 terms

Bacteriology Vocabulary 625

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adenylate cyclase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic adenylic acid from adenosine triphosphate
aerobic
relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen
anaphylactic shock
an extreme, often life-threatening allergic reaction to an antigen to which the body has
become hypersensitive
antibiotic antagonism
inhibition of or interference with the action
of one antibiotic by another
antibiotic synergy
the interaction or cooperation of two or more antibiotics to produce a combined
effect greater than the sum of their separate
effects
antigenic variation
the mechanism by which an infectious agent
such as a bacterium alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response
area under the inhibitory curve
the ratio of drug exposure to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
bacteriocidal
having the ability to kill bacteria
bacteriostatic
preventing the multiplying of bacteria
without destroying them
bioavailability
the proportion of a drug or other substance that enters the circulation when introduced
into the body and so is able to have an active
effect
caseous necrosis
a form of necrosis characteristic of
tuberculosis, in which diseased tissue forms
a firm, dry mass like cheese in appearance
catarrhal stage
stage of disease characterized by excessive
discharge or buildup of mucus in the nose or throat with associated with inflammation of the mucous membrane
convalescent stage
stage of disease characterized by gradual recovery and lessening of symptoms
diphtheroids
bacterium of a genus that includes the diphtheria bacillus, especially one that does not cause disease
dysentery
infection of the intestines resulting in severe diarrhea with the presence of blood and mucus in the feces
ectopic pregnancy
a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus, typically in a Fallopian tube
El Tor
particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae responsible for the seventh global
pandemic
empiric treatment
therapy begun on the basis of a clinical
educated guess in the absence of complete
or perfect information
endotoxin
a toxin that is present inside a bacterial cell
and is released when the cell disintegrates
enteric bacteria
a complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of animals
and is the largest reservoir of beneficial
microorganisms in humans
extrinsic resistance
type of antibiotic resistance acquired from
outside sources such as bacteriophage or
plasmids
fimbrae
another term for pili
G protein
a type of protein that act as a molecular switch inside cells, and is involved in
transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli
outside a cell to its interior
Ghon complex
a combination of pleural surface-healed
granulomas, calcifications, or scars on the middle lobe of the lung together with hilar lymph node granulomas
Gram stain
a staining technique for the preliminary identification of bacteria, in which a violet
dye is applied, followed by a decolorizing
agent and then a red dye
granuloma
a mass of granulation tissue, typically produced in response to infection, inflammation, or the presence of a foreign substance
guanylate cyclase
catalyzes the reaction of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and pyrophosphate
gumma
a small, soft swelling that is characteristic of the late stages of syphilis and occurs in the connective tissue of the liver, brain, testes,
and heart
HA capsule
capsule consisting of hyaluronic acid
produced by Streptococcus pyogenes
Hansen disease
another term for leprosy
antibiotic indifference
action of one antibiotic is not affected by the
presence of another
intrinsic resistance
innate ability of a microorganism to resist
the effects of an antibiotic
L forms
strains of bacteria that lack cell walls
latent
present in the body without causing disease, but capable of doing so at a later stage
M protein
a surface protein present on strep bacteria that prevents white blood cells from
engulfing and destroying the bacteria
minimum inhibitory antimicrobial
concentration (MIC)
the lowest concentration of an that will inhibit the visible growth of a microorganism after overnight incubation
murein
peptidoglycan
mycolic acid
any of several hydroxy fatty acids that have very long branched chains and are obtained
especially from the wax of the tubercle
bacillus
necrotizing fasciitis
an acute disease in which inflammation of
the fasciae of muscles or other organs results in rapid destruction of overlying tissues
O antigen
somatic antigen of enteric gram-negative bacteria; external part of cell wall
lipopolysaccharide
oxygen-tolerant anaerobes
bacteria that cannot use oxygen for growth,
but tolerate its presence
paroxysmal stage
characterized by bursts of coughing, or
numerous rapid coughs, apparently due to difficulty expelling thick mucus from the airways of the lungs
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
inflammation of the female genital tract, accompanied by fever and lower abdominal
pain
pharmacodynamics
the branch of pharmacology concerned with
the effects of drugs and the mechanism of
their action
phase variation
the reversible ability of some bacteria to
turn an and off the expression of genes
coding for surface antigens
pili
short curled hairlike processes on the
surface of certain bacteria that are involved in conjugation and the attachment of the bacteria to other cells
Q fever
an infectious fever caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which may be transmitted to humans from cattle, sheep, and other domesticated animals
septicemia
blood poisoning caused by the presence of bacteria
spirochete
a flexible spirally twisted bacterium
strict anaerobes
bacteria that grow only in the absence of
oxygen
antibiotic synergism
the ability of two or more antibiotics to work better together than the sum of their
individual activities
toxemia
blood poisoning by toxins from a local bacterial infection
tuberculin conversion
property of exhibiting a newly positive test
for TB after previously showing a negative
test
typhus
an infectious disease caused by rickettsiae,
characterized by a purple rash, headaches, fever, and usually delirium, and historically a cause of high mortality during wars and famines
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
Ziehl-Neelsen technique
a special bacteriological stain used to identify acid-fast organisms, mainly Mycobacteria; also known as the acid fast stain
alpha-hemolysis
property of some bacteria to partially lyse red blood cells
beta-hemolytic
property of some bacteria to completely lyse red blood cells and degrade heme
beta-lactamase
enzymes produced by some bacteria that provide resistance to antibiotics such as penicillins, cephamycins, and carbapenems