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Microbiology Questions

Chapter 1
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following attributes make microorganisms ideal model systems for studying life's basic processes?
They grow to high cell densities in a short amount of time.
What is the name of the process in which cells take up nutrients from the environment and convert them into new cell structures and waste products?
Metabolism
What is the immediate environment called where a microbial population lives?
Habitat
Of the following evolutionary milestones, which occurred earlier than the Earth's oxygenation?
Origin of cyanobacteria
What are the crop plants called that form symbiotic relations with the bacteria that convert nitrogen gas into ammonia?
Legumes
Who was the amateur microscopist who first published drawings of bacteria?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following discoveries by Louis Pasteur came first?
The significance of optical isomers
The role of microorganisms in fermentation
The development of a vaccine for rabies
The defeat of the theory of spontaneous generation
The significance of optical isomers
What organism was studied by Robert Koch to help him develop his famous postulates?
Bacillus anthracis
What is the method called that uses specific culture media and incubation conditions to isolate specific microorganisms?
Enrichment culture
Which of the following would generally not be considered a subdiscipline of applied microbiology?
Biotechnology
Microbial systematics
Medical microbiology
Agricultural microbiology
Microbial systematics
Which of the following cellular properties is NOT found in all cells?
Evolution
Metabolism
Growth
Differentiation
Differentiation
Consider the following two statements: Most bacterial species cause disease. Infectious diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States today
Neither statement I nor II is correct.
What would example of bioremediation of an oil spill in a marine environment?
Adding nutrients that stimulate indigenous microorganisms to degrade the oil
What is the hypothesis called by which cells originated from nonliving matter?
Spontaneous generation
What habitats is home to the largest percentage of microbial biomass on Earth?
Marine subsurface
What important biochemical process takes place within these structures found on the roots of legumes?
Nitrogen fixation
When considering the properties of all cellular life, what two ways can cells be viewed?
Differentiating entities and genetic coding devices
Biochemical catalysts and self-propelled factories
Self-propelled factories and genetic coding devices
Biochemical catalysts and genetic coding devices
Biochemical catalysts and genetic coding devices
Control of infectious diseases currently is the result of all of the following EXCEPT _________.
the use of antimicrobial agents
increased understanding of disease processes
eradication of hundreds of pathogens
improved sanitary and public health practices
Eradication of hundreds of pathogens
Who is the scientist that discovered endospores?
Cohn
A colony on a Petri plate arises from a single cell. How many cells does a typical bacterial colony contain?
70
What type of glassware was used in the experiments that settled the controversy surrounding spontaneous generation?
Swan-necked flask
Louis Pasteur developed vaccines for the following diseases EXCEPT _________.
fowl cholera
rabies
anthrax
smallpox
Smallpox
For which type of disease today is it occasionally impossible to satisfy Koch's postulates?

Lethal infectious diseases that only occur in humans
Infectious diseases that are caused by viruses
Infectious diseases that are caused by fungi
Any lethal infectious diseases
Lethal infectious diseases that only occur in humans
What model system did Robert Koch utilize to prove the causative agent of tuberculosis?
Guinea pigs
Who showed that viruses were filterable agents that were smaller than bacteria?
Beijerinck
What is chemolithotrophy?
The oxidation of inorganic compounds linked to energy conservation within a cell
Which types of organisms are the most important for the maintenance of life on Earth?
Microorganisms
Consider the following two statements: Ecosystems are influenced by microbial activities. Microbial ecosystems remain constant over time.
Only statement II is correct.
Only statement I is correct.
Both statements I and II are correct.
Neither statement I nor II is correct.
Only statement I is correct.
What characteristics was found in the earliest cellular organisms?
Anaerobic metabolism
What microorganism that Robert Hooke illustrated were first published in 1665?
Mold
Which of the following is NOT a major lineage of microbial cells?
Viridae
Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria
Viridae
Which of the following would be an example of applied microbial research?
Studies about how cells control DNA replication
Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment
Studies on the mechanisms of endospore formation
Experiments that test a hypothesis concerning cell-cell communication
Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment
Which of the following would be an example of basic microbiology research?
Experiments that produce a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis
Studies on how to prevent the loss of soil fertility due to the activity of microorganisms
Studies on how cells respond to DNA damage by triggering a repair pathway
Experiments that test a hypothesis about improved cheese production
Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment
What term specifically refers to RNA production?
Transcription
What is the process called when proteins are synthesized based on information from an RNA molecule?
Translation
Consider the following two statements about microorganisms and their environments: Aerobic organisms maintain oxygen in their environment. Some microorganisms consume the waste products of another population as nutrients.
Only statement I is correct.
Only statement II is correct.
Both statements I and II are correct.
Neither statement I nor II is correct.
Only statement II is correct.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)?
Its genes were composed of RNA.
Its cells were bounded by a lipid membrane.
It used ATP as a common energy currency.
Its proteins were synthesized on ribosomes.
Its genes were composed of RNA
When does the preponderance of evidence suggest that life first arose on Earth?
3.8 × 10^9 years ago
Which of the following is NOT an important infectious disease in the developing world today?
Alzheimer's disease
Cholera
Malaria
Tuberculosis
Alzheimer's disease
What early microbiologist studied the large filamentous sulfur bacterium, later called Beggiatoa?
Ferdinand Cohn
What did proponents of spontaneous generation declare was needed for life to arise that Pasteur's swan-necked flasks accommodated?
Fresh air
What is the second step of Koch's postulates?
The organism must initially be cultivated in pure culture away from the animal body.
Who isolated in pure culture the first nitrogen-fixing bacterium?
Winogradsky
What plant-like characteristic do chemolithotrophs possess?
They are autotrophs.
Which of the following is NOT a new subdiscipline that has been created from the study of genomes?
Ribosomics
Metabolomics
Transcriptomics
Proteomics
Ribosomics
The cell's genome is stored in
the nucleus or nucleoid
Microbial ecology is the study of
microorganisms in their natural environments
A Pasteur flask has a/an
swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask