46 terms

Sociology Chapter 3

Sociology, A brief introduction . ninth edition
Anthropologist Horace Miner's description of the body ritual among the Nacirema is used to show
cultural differences in what is considered "beautiful."
The totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
Which of the following is an aspect of culture?
using American Sign Language
watching the Super Bowl game
eating in fast-food restaurants
A society is
a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
A society
is the largest form of human group.
Which of the following is an example of a society?
an Amish community in Pennsylvania
The Schaefer text indicates which of the following individuals as being associated with the concept of the culture industry?
Theodor Adorno
General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called
cultural universals
In his research, George Murdock determined which of the following to be a cultural
funeral ceremonies
Which of the following is considered a cultural universal?
athletic sports
money restrictions
none of these
A list of cultural universals was compiled by anthropologist
George Murdock.
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others is called
The concept of ethnocentrism was originally formulated by
William Graham Sumner
A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation and members of other religions are pagans and will go directly to hell when they die. This individual is
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Therefore, ethnocentrism fosters cohesion in a group. This observation would best reflect which sociological perspective?
functionalist perspective
A U.S. sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the people of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
cultural relativism
Which of the following concepts employs the kind of value neutrality in scientific study that Max Weber saw as being so important?
cultural relativism
Sociobiology is the systematic study of the
how biology affects human social behavior
Which of the following would be of interest to a sociobiologist?
all of these
Discovery is
the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.
Invention is
the process of introducing new elements into a culture
Communism, the Episcopalian religion, and the microwave oven are examples of
Diffusion is
the process by which a cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society
Which of the following is an example of cultural diffusion?
the presence of McDonald's restaurants in Thailand, Saudi Arabia, and Japan
English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
Given that cultural diffusion could upset the stability of a society, which perspective is most likely to argue that most cultures resist new cultural components that do not fit comfortably into their social system
Which sociologist coined the phrase "The McDonaldization of society
George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to
Which of the following statements about globalization is correct
Which sociologist defined technology as "information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives are called
Nonmaterial culture
A basketball arena, an airliner, a slice of pizza, and a television set would all be considered examples of
Which of the following made the distinction between the elements of material and nonmaterial culture?
Which sociologist introduced the concept of culture lag to the discipline?
Culture lag is
Culture lag occurs because people in most societies are
A subculture is
In the U.S., professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of
The use of the terms "g-man," "honey boat," and "airmail" by sanitation workers in New York is an example of
Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?
An argot is a specialized language used by members of a subculture. Doctors and nurses, for example, have developed a language system that is not easily understood by patients, but enables medical professionals to communicate more easily, rapidly, and precisely with one another. Which sociological perspective is likely to emphasize the value of this specialized medical language?
Which sociological perspective argues that subcultures often emerge because the dominant society has unsuccessfully attempted to suppress a practice regarded as improper, such as the use of illegal drugs?
Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of a
Culture shock is
People who have visited China might have experienced culture shock if they ordered meat for dinner and discovered it was