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circulatory system study Guide

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What is the role of the circulatory system
The role of the circulatory system is to bring in the o2 and the nutrients for the cells and tissues of the body and to take out the co2 and the metabolic waste.
What does the circulatory system deliver to cells
it delivers o2 and many different nutrients
what does the circulatory system pick up from cells
it picks up co2 and metabolic waste.
which vessels take blood away from the heart
the arteries
which vessels take blood into the heart
the veins
what are the two circuits of the circulatory system and how are they different
pulmonary and systemic; pulmonary circuit takes blood from the heart to the lungs and the systemic circuit take blood from the heart to everywhere else in the body.
which side of the heart handles o2 blood (oxygenated)
left side
which side of the heart handles co2 blood (deoxgenated)
right side
how are arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins connected
they are all blood vessels that transport blood all over the body. As blood flows through the body it flows from arteries to capillaries to veins. Arteries and venules are smaller extensions of arteries and veins that carry the blood. All of these are connected to connective tissues.
what is the advantage of having a 4 chambered heart
the 4 chambers of the heart allow for compartmentaliation and and an organized direction of blood flow throughout the body. This organization both divides oxygenated blood from deoxgenated blood and allows the heart to pump efficiently.
what is the advantage of having two fully separated sides of the heart
this organization both divides oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood and allows the heart to pump efficiently.
What are the characteristics of arteries, veins and capillaries
they are all blood vessels. Arteries are the large thick vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues in the body. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels and are very thin, and lastly veins carry blood from the tissues of the bodies back to the heart
which is the only vessel type that allows for diffusion of nutrients, gases and waste
the capillaries
which vessel type experiences the highest blood pressures
arteries
which vessel type contains valves. why are valves important and what do they do.
veins. the valves are important because they prevent the backflow of the blood and air
which vessel type of the thickest
the arteries
which vessel type has smallest diameter
capillaries
what is the inner lining of all vessels called
endothelium
which is the only artery in the body to carry deoxygenated? why is this then called an artery and not a vein.
pulmonary artery. It carries the blood to the lungs
which is the only vein in the body to carry oxygenated blood
pulmonary vein
why are vessel valves so important and what do they do
they prevent the backflow of the blood and air.
which vessel type is most abundant in our bodies (by length)
veins
smaller branches of arteries are called what
artereles
smaller branches of veins are called what
venules
what is plasma
plasma is about 90% water and it makes up 55% of the blood volume. it is made up of dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, hormones, waste product, and plasma proteins.
what are the components of plasma
made up of dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste product, and plasma proteins. 90% water
what are the 3 major blood cell types
red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
which blood cell types live for only 3 months
red blood cells
which blood cells do not have a nucleus
red blood cells
which blood cells form clots
platelets
which blood cells carry out immune defenses (immune cells)
white blood cells
which blood cells are packed with hemoglobin
red blood cells
which blood cells are fragments of cells (fragment off of large cells called megakaryocytes
platelets
which blood cells have member that produce antibodies
white blood cells
which blood cells form a sticky clump with the protein fibrin
platelets
which blood cells transport oxygen
red blood cells
what is the lymph system and how is it related to the circulatory system
a network of vessels nodes, and an organ called the lymphatic system collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it back to the circulatory system.
know the pathway into, through, and out of the heart backwards and forwards
the path of the blood in the heart is oxygen poor blood goes through the superior and inferior vena cave, down through the right atrium, to the right ventricle, past the pulmonary valve, through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Now oxygenated blood passes though the pulmonary veins, to the left atrium, past the mitral valve to the left ventricle, out through the aorta to the body
what veins bring co2 blood into the heart (from the body and from the head)
the superior and inferior vena cava
which chamber does co2 blood first enter
the right atrium
what purpose of the valves
the valves prevent the back flow of different amounts of air and blood
which chamber receives o2 blood from the lungs
the left atrium
why are the ventricles more muscular chambers than the atria
the ventricles are more strong because they have to pump the blood the farthest and with the most force. for example the left ventricle must pump the blood with the most force for it to reach all parts of the body
which is the largest and and most muscular chamber of the heart
the left ventrical
which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium
the tricuspid valve
which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
the pulmonary valve
which vessel takes blood to the lung.
pulmonary ateries
which returns blood from lungs back to heart
pulmonary arteries
which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the aortic arch to the left ventricle
the pulmonary vein
which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium
aoric valve
which vessel takes o2 blood from the heart to the rest of the body
bicuspid valve
which vessel take o2 blood from the heart to the head
aorta and carotid artery
what is the function of the aortic arch
funnels blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
what is the SA node, and what does it do
it is the pacemaker and initiates electrical currents from the heart to the lungs
what is the AV node and what does it do
initiates the ventricle contraction
atherosclerosis
hardening in the arteries. chlorsetoral, saturated fats, and calcium form along the arteries walls. Can trigger clotting of the platelets called a thrombus which blocks blood flow. It can cause a heart attack and a stroke.
myocardial infarction
a heart attack caused by a blockage in one of the three arteries
hypertension
high blood pressure due to atherosclerosis, the heart tries to pump hader to get all of the blood through the small arteries this is an increase in pressure
what is normal blood pressure
120/80
what do the two numbers of blood pressure represent what are they called
the systolic and diastolic. Systolic is the force felt in the arteries when the ventricles conract. The second number the diastolic is the force of the blood felt in the arteries when the ventricles relax.'
how is blood pressure measured
on a sphygmonometer
what disease involves a weakening of the artery wall and ballooning (or Bulge) that could rupture if not treated
aneurysm
varicose veins.
when the blood pool in the vein and the valves are defective. Women are more susceptible
what is sickle cell anemia.
a genetic disease where the red blood cells are in the shape of a sickle.
what gene is mutated in sickle cell anemia.
hemoglobin gene
what disease are sickle cells resistant to
malaria
what disease is caused by defective heart valves
heart murmur
what is a stroke
when a thrombus occurs inside of the head and the blood flow is blocked to one aspect of the brain
leukemia
cancer of stem cells in bone marrow that make white blood cells
antigens
a substance that triggers an immune response
antibodies
it immoblizes foreign things and destoys pathogens which are a disease causing ages
agglutination
the clumping of bacteria, red blood cells, or other cells due to the introduction of an antibody
what are the 4 major blood groups
A, AB, B , O
what is the blood group subtype (+ or -)
+ or- is a delineation from the type of R factor present
how blood can be assigned
O is universal donor. Any blood type can receive O. AB blood is the universal acceptor. It can receive type A, B, or O