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Why do Cometologists need to understand the human anatomy?
it is important when giving massages and working hand ons
Reasons a cometologist studies anatomy and physiology
to understand how the human body functions as a whole, to recognive changes from the normal, and to determine a scientific basis for the proper application of services and products
the basic unit of all living things from bacteria to plants and animals, including human beings is ______
the cells of all living things are composed of a substance called _____, a colorless jellylike substance
The study of the functions and activities performed by the body
the dense active protoplasm, found at the center of the cell
the protoplasm of the cell that surrounds the nucleus
the study of the human body; the science of structure of organisms or of their parts
the balloon to contain the protoplam, allowing certain substances to pass through
the study of the many tiny structures found in living tissue; miscroscopic anatomy
cells have the ability to reproduce, providing new cells for the growth and replacement of worn or injured one
most cells reproduce by diving in to two identical cells called ________. This process of cells reproduction is known as ________.
daughter cells, mitosis
for cells to grow and reproduce, conditions must be _________, whic include a/an:
favorable; adequate suplly of oxygen, food, and water, sustainable temperatures, and the ability to eliminate waste products
what will occur if conditions are unfavorable?
the cells will become impaired or die
what conditions are considered unfavorable?
toxins and disease
a chemical process that takes place in living organisms, whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities
what are the two phases of metabolism
anabolism and canabolism
the build up of food, water, and oxygen
breaking down of complex compounds
during which phase is energy released that has been stored?
during which phase does the body store water, food, and oxygen?
anabolism and catabolism are not carried out simultaneously
a collection of similar cells that perform a particular functions are _________. Each has a specific function and can be recognized by its ________ appearance.
how many types of tissue are there in the body?
the tissue that is a protective covering on the body surface
the tissue that contracts and moves the various parts of the body
the tissue that serves to support, protect, and bind together other tissues of the body
tissues sucha s blood and lymph that carry food, waste products, and hormones through the body
the tissues that carry messages to and from the brain and control and coordinate all bodily fluids
bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia, fat/adipose tisse are examples of what?
skin, mucous membranes, lining of the heart, digestive, repiratory organs, and glands are examples of what?
groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function
groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more fuctions
there are __ major body systems
the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
breakdown of foods
determnes growth, developement, and contains glands
elimination of waste
protective covering, regulates body temperature, cotains oil and sweat glands, hair, and nails
covers, supports, and shapes sketal tissue
the system that is exceptionally well-organized and is responsible for coordinating all of the many activities that are performed inside and outside the body
production of offspring
enables breathing and contains the lungs
physical foundation of the body
the study of anatomy, structure, and functions of the bones
what prefix is used in many medical terms means "bone"?
the skeletal system is composed of _____bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by ______ and ______ joints
204, movable, immovable
what other than bone is the hardest tissue in the body?
primary functions of the skeletal system
give shape and supports to the body, protective various internal structures and organs, help produce red and white blood cells, attachments for muscles and lever for muscles, and stores most calcium, phosporus, magnesium, and sodium
a _____ is the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
what are the two types of joints?
movable and immovable
elbows, knees,n and hips are examples of what type of joint?
the pelvisa nd skull are examples of what type of joint?
the skull is divided into two part, the _____ and the _______ which is made up of ___ bones
cranium, facial skeleton, 14
the cranium is made up of have many bones
forms the forehead
hindmost bone of the skull
form the sides of the head in the ear region
form the sides and crown of the cranium
small, thin bones located at the front inner wall
lower jawbone, largest and strongest of the face
form the bridge of the bridge
bones of the upper jaw
form the prominence of the cheeks
U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue
the chest; elastic, bony cage
12 pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax
seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column
the smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb
the uppermost and largest bone of the arm
the wrist, a flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones
the inner and large bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger
the __________ are the bones of the palm of the hand, and the ______ are the bones in the fingers, also called_______
metacarpus, phalanges, digits
accessory bone; forms the knee cap joint
heavy , long bone; forms the leg above the knee
smaller of the two bones, forms the leg below the knee
ankle bone of the foot
larger of 2 bones, form leg below knee
the foot is made up of ___ bones
the three subcategories of bones in the foot are
talus, tarsals, and metatarsals
the study of the structure, function, and disease of the muscles
the human body has over ___ muscles, which are responsible for approximately ___ of the body's weight
what are the three types of muscular tissue?
striated, nonstriated,a nd cardiac muscle
striated muscles are also called _____ muscles
what muscles are involuntary and function automatically or are controlled by will?
_____ muscle is the involuntary muscles that is the heart
what are the two functions of the striated muscles?
maintaining body posture and protecting some internal organs
where are the nonstirated muscles found?
interal organs; digestive or repiratory systems
is the cardiac muscle found anywhere other than the heart?
what are the three parts of the muscles?
origin, insertion, and belly
attached to skelton and does not move
located in the more movable part
middle part of the muscle
to which part of the muscle is pressure applied during massage?
how is the pressure usually directed?
from insertion to origin
massage, eletrical current, light, dry heat, moist heat, nerve impulses, and chemicals are examples of ways what can be stimulated?
the muscular tissue
which muscles should the cosmetologist be concerned with
muscles of the scalp, hand,a dn foot
the broad muscle that covers the top of the skull
the epicranius is made up of what two parts?
occipialis and the frontalis
the muscle that draws the scalp backward
the ______ muscle of the scalp raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and cause wrinkles across the forehead
what tendon connects the occipitalis and the frontalis?
muscle behind the ear the draws the ear backward
muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward
muscles in front of the ear that ddraws the ear forward
Do the three muscles of the ear have any function?
the masseter and the temporalis muscles coordinate the opening and closing of the mouth and are sometimes referred to as _______
the broad muscles extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin
which muscle of the neck lowers and rotates the head
the muscles located beneath the frontalis that draws the eyebrow down
the muscles that covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose
the muscles that forms the ring of the eye socket, closing the eye
muscles that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin
muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth, elevate the lip
flat muscles of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips
a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward
levator anguli oris
muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth and cheek back
muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corners of the mouth
a muscle surrounding the lower lip; lowers the lower lip and draws it to one side
depressor labii inferioris
flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips
a muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostils
levator labii superioris
the broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back
the muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper region of the back and rotates and controls the swinging movements of the arm
the muscle of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm
the muscles of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm
three principle muscles of the shoulder and upper arm
bicep, tricep,a nd deltoid
muscles that straighten wrist, hand, food, and fingers to form a straight line
muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm
muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward
muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward
large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint
extensor muscles of the wrist; involved in bending the wrist
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm
separate the fingers
draws fingers together
the muscles that bend the foot up and extends the toes
extensor digitorum longus
the muscles that cover the front of the skin and bends the foot upward and inward
the muscles that cover the outside of the calf and inverts the foot, turns it outward
the muscles that orginates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot downward
the muscle attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down
what are the 4 muscles of the foot?
extensor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and abductor
the scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system
every inch of the human body is supplied with fine fibers know as _______
there are over ___ cells in the body
the cells that make up the nerves
why is it important for a cosmetologist to understand how the nervous system works?
to help perform services in a more proficient manner
what are the principle components of the nervous system?
brain, spinal cord, and nerves
what are the three subdivisions of the nervous system?
central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and autonomic nervous system
a system of nerves that connect the outer parts of the body to the central nervous system
what system consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves?
the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles
it regulated the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart
it controls consciousness and many mental activities, voluntary functions of the five senses, and voluntary functions
it functions to carry impulses, or messages, to and from the central nervous system
what is the largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body?
the brain is located in the ________ and weights a little less than __ pounds on average
the portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column
a _______ is the primary structural unit of the nervous system and is composed of _________ and _____
neuron, dentrites, axon
treelike branchings of the nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receives impulses from other neurons
what sends impulses away from the cell body to the other neurons, glands, or muscles?
the whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted
where do nerves originate?
the spinal cord and the brain
there are __ types of nerves
which nerve carries impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain?
which nerve carries impulses from the brain to the muscles?
which nerve deals with the 5 senses?
the impulses that produce movement are transmitted by the _______ nerve
which of the cranial nerves is the largest?
what are other names for the 5th cranial nerve?
trifacial and trigeminal
what is the purpose of the 5th cranial nerve?
it is the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing
massage affects external ear and skin above the temple
massage affects the skin of the lower eyelid
massage affect membrane of skin and nose
massage affects the point and lower side of the nose
massage affects the skin of the forehead, eyebrow, and eyelid
massage affects skin between the eyes and above the nose
massage affects the muscles above the cheek
the motor nerve of the face
7th cranial nerve
6 most important branches of the facial nerve
posterior auricular nerve, temporal nerve, zygomatic nerve, buccal nerve, marginal mandibular nerve, and the cervical nerves
the principle nerves supplying the superficial parts of the arm and hand
digital, radial, median, and the ulnar nerves
the nerve that supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes
extends down the leg, supplies impulses to the muscles and skin of the leg
superficial peroneal nerve
extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg
extends down to the front of the leg, supplies to the muscles and skin on top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toe
deep peroneal nerve
which nerve supplies to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg?
another name for the circulatory system
cardiovascular or vascular system
contains the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries
blood vascular system
acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of lymph, lymphatics, and lymph nodes and other structures
lymph vascular system
the purpose of the blood vascular system is to
distribute blood throughout the body
the purpose of the lymph system is to
assist the blood system
what si referred to as the body's pump?
structures between the chambers that allow the blood to flow in only one direction
the upper, thin-walled chambers on the right and left
what sends the blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified?
what carries the blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart?
step 1 of the pulmonary and systemic systems
blood flows from the body into the right atrium
step 2 of the pulmonary and systemic systems
from the right atrium, it flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle
step 3 of the pulmonary and systemic systems
from the right ventricle blood is pumped to the lungs, where gas is released and oxygen is received where blood is "oxygen rich"
step 4 of the pulmonary and systemic systems
the oxygen rich blood is returned to the heart and then into the left ventricle
step 5 of the pulmonary and systemic systems
blood then leaves and travels all over the body
the three categories of blood vessels are
arteries, capillaries, and veins
tiny, thin walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries tot he veins
thin walled blood vessels that are less elastic
thick walled, muscular, flexible tubes
a nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system
there are approximately ___ to ___ pints of blood in the body
blood is approximately ____ water with a normal temperature of ____
80%, 98.6 degrees
contribute to the blood-clotting process
the fluid part of the blood
produced in the red bone marrow
red blood cells
perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms
white blood cells
complex iron protein that binds to oxygen
the arteries that are located on either side of the neck and are the main sources of blood supply to the head, face and neck are _______ ________ arteries
the internal cartotid artery supplies blood to
the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear
the external carotid artery supplies blood to
the scalp, ears, face, neck, and side of the head
the artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose
the artery that supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose
superior labial artery
the artery that supplies blood tot he skin and masseter
transverse facial artery
the popliteal artery divides into two seperate arteries
anterior auricular artery
the ____ and _____ arteries are the main blood supply for the arms and hands
the endocrine system is made up of a group of specialized glands that effect:
growth, development, sexual activities, and overall health
specialized organs that remove certain elements from the blood to create new components
creates a substance to travel through the tubes
influence the welfare of the entire body
the digestive system is responsible for
braking down food into waste and nutrients
how long does the entire food digestion process take
what system is responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste?
eliminates decomposed and undigested food
eliminates waste contaminating perspiration
excrete waste containing urine
discharges waste containing bile
exhale carbon dioxide
the respiratory system enables breathing or _______ and consists of the lungs and air passages
the spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle
a muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing
during ______ or breathing in, oxygen is passed into the blood
during _______ or breathing outward, carbon dioxide is expelled from the lungs
made up of the skin and its various accessory organs
which system consists of the oil and swat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails
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