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75 terms

Medical Terminology Chp 5

Medical Terminology Chp 5 Cardiovascular system
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angi/o
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
aort/o
aorta; largest artery
arteri/o
of or pertaining to an artery
ather/o
plaque or fatty substance
brady-
Abnormally slow
cardi/o
pertaining to the heart
-crasia
mixture or blending
-ernia
blood, blood condition
erythr/o
combining form for red
hem/o hemat/o
blood, pertaining to the blood
leuk/o
combining form for white
phleb/o
combining form:
vein
tachy-
fast, rapid
thromb/o
BLOOD CLOT
ven/o
combining form for vein
ACE inhibitor
blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension
anemia
a deficiency of red blood cells
aneurysm
a cardiovascular disease characterized by a sac-like widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
angina
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
angioplasty
an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
anticoagulant
slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming
aplastic anemia
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
arrhythmia
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
atherectomy
surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery
atheroma
a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall
atherosclerosis
the most common form of CVD; a disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.
atrial fibrillation
occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall
automated external defibrillator
electronic equipment that automatically samples the heart's electrical rhythms and when necessary, externally shocks the heart to restore a normal cardiac rhythm
beta-blocker
Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
blood dyscrasia
any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood
bradycardia
slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute
cardiac arrest
The heart and breathing stop suddenly and without warning
cardiac catheterization
procedure where a catheter is inserted into an artery and guided into the heart; may be used for diagnosis of blockages or treatment
cardiomyopathy
a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)
carotid endarterectomy
incision and coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage caused by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke
cholesterol
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)
a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves
coronary thrombosis
the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus
defibrillation
application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
diuretic
a drug that causes the body to lose fluids; not effective for loss of body fat
electrocardiogram (ECG)
a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease
embolism
occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle)
embolus
A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.
endocarditis
inflammation of the lining of the heart
erythrocytes
Red blood cells that transport oxygen
hemoglobin
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
hemolytic anemia
a condition o fan inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen
hemostasis
surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
ischemic heart disease
a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart
leukemia
cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
leukopenia
an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
megaloblastic anemia
blood disorder characterized by anemia in which red blood cells are larger than normal., a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
myelodysplastic syndrome
a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow
myocardial infarction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
orthostatic hypotension
decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
an episode that begins and ends abruptly, during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
pernicious anemia
a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
phlebitis
inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
Raynaud's phenomenon
a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress.
septicemia
a systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in the circulating blood
sickle cell anemia
A genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
tachycardia
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
thallium stress test (TST)
performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise
thrombocytopenia
a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process
thrombolytic
a kind of pharmaceutical that can break up clots blocking the flow of blood to the heart muscle
thrombotic occlusion
the blocking of an artery by a thrombus
thrombus
a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
transfusion reaction
a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match
valvulitis
inflammation of a valve (especially of a cardiac valve as a consequence of rheumatic fever)
varicose veins
abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
ventricular fibrillation
fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
ventricular tachycardia
a very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles
cardiovascular
pertaining to the heart and blood vessels (cardi/o means heart, vascul means blood vessels, and -ar means pertaining to)