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Milady Cosmetology Chapter 6
General Anatomy & Physiology
Terms in this set (216)
Muscles that separate the fingers.
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
Muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together.
Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Study of human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the structure of organisms, or of their parts.
Supplies blood to the side of the nose.
Anterior Auricular Artery
Supplies blood to the front part of the ear.
Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
The upper thin walled chambers of the heart.
Muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.
Muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.
Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.
Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart.
The extension of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the nerve cell.
Middle part of a muscle.
Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.
Fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries).
Blood Vascular System
Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries) that distribute blood throughout the body.
Group of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 10 major systems.
Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions.
Affects the muscles of the mouth.
Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips.
Thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
The involuntary muscle that is the heart.
The wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments.
The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular movement or digestion.
Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.
Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.
Cervical Cutaneous Nerve
Located at the side of the neck, affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.
Affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.
The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region.
System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.
Collarbone; bone joining the sternum and scapula.
Common Carotid Artery
Artery that supplies blood to the face, head, and neck.
Common Peroneal Nerve
A division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.
Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons.
Muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.
An oval, bony case that protects the brain.
All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell.
Deep Peroneal Nerve
A nerve that extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes.
Large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.
Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.
Depressor Labii Inferioris Muscle
Muscle surrounding the lower lip; depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side.
Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.
The mouth, stomach, intestines, and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes.
A finger or toe.
Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes.
A nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin, supplying impulses to toes and foot, as well as the muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve or the musculo-cutaneous nerve.
Ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream.
Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.
Tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis.
The broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consists of the occipitalis and frontalis.
Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucuous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands.
Light spongy bone between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavities.
Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter.
The act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs.
Duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts, such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands.
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes.
External Carotid Artery
Supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head.
External Jugular Vein
Vein located at the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face, and neck.
Supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose.
A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee.
The smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a "bump" on the little-toe side of the ankle.
Fifth Cranial Nerve
The chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.
Extensor muscles of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist.
Flexor Digitorum Brevis
Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.
Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.
Forms the forehead.
Anterior (front) portion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.
Muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down.
Specialized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances.
Greater Auricular Nerve
Located at the side of the neck, affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.
Greater Occipital Nerve
Located in the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.
Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
Science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.
Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body to stimulate a specific activity.
Uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
Inferior Labial Artery
Supplies blood to the lower lip.
Supplies blood to the muscles of the eye.
Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.
Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose.
The breathing in of air.
Part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton.
The skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.
Internal Carotid Artery
Supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.
Internal Jugular Vein
Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck.
Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
Small, thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits (eye sockets).
Broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.
Levator Anguli Oris
Also known as caninus, a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.
Levator Labii Superioris
Also known as quadratus labii superioris, a muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste.
Body tissue that carries food, waste products, and hormones (i.e., blood and lymph).
Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide.
Clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces (lymphatic) of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells.
Special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph.
Lymph Vascular System
Body system that acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels and lymph glands.
Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face.
Affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.
Muscles that coordinate with the temporalis muscles in opening and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles.
Bones of the upper jaw.
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
Nerve that supplies the arm and hand.
Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.
Muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin.
Chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities.
Bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges.
One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, help make-up the foot. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.
Middle Temporal Artery
Supplies blood to the temples.
Cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells); the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues.
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body.
Science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles.
Bones that form the bridge of the nose.
Affects the point and lower side of the nose.
Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions.
Body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; controls and coordinates all other system and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.
Nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of cell body, nucleus, dendrites, and axon.
Science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.
Also called involuntary or smooth muscle; muscle that functions automatically without conscious will.
Dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism.
Supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.
Hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape.
Back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward.
Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.
Orbicularis Oculi Muscle
Ring muscle of the eye socket; enables you to close your eyes.
Orbicularis Oris Muscle
Flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips.
Structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions.
Part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle.
The study of anatomy, structure, and function of the bones.
Form the floor and outer wall of the nose, roof of the mouth, and floor of the orbits.
Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.
Form the sides and top of the cranium.
Also called the accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint.
Pectoralis Major & Minor
Muscles of chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
Double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart.
Peripheral Nervous System
System of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system ; it has both sensory and motor nerves.
Muscle that originates on the lower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out.
Muscle that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward.
Bones of the fingers or toes.
Study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.
Fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells.
Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots.
Broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.
Divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial and the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the foot with blood.
Posterior Auricular Artery
Supplies blood to the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear.
Posterior Auricular Nerve
Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
Covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.
Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
Colorless jelly-like substance found inside cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present.
Blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified.
Artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand.
Supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.
Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.
Red Blood Cells
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of specific muscles as a response to impulses carried along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a spontaneous reaction.
Body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring.
Act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and within each cell.
Body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide wastes.
Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax.
Muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning.
Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot.
One of a pair of shoulder blades; a large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.
Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.
Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.
Physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immoveable joints.
Smaller Occipital Nerve
Located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear.
Muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down.
Joins all of the bones of the cranium together.
The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.
Muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head.
Breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs.
Also called voluntary or skeletal muscle; muscle that is consciously controlled.
Supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.
Superficial Peroneal Nerve
A nerve that extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot.
Superficial Temporal Artery
Artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head.
Superior Labial Artery
Supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.
Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.
Supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead.
Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.
Affets the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.
Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg.
Circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart; also called general circulation.
One of three bones that comprise the ankle joint. The other two bones are the tibia and fibula.
One of the three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.
Form the sides of the head in the ear region.
Affects the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.
Temporal muscle; one of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing).
The chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.
The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a "bump" on the big-toe-side of the ankle.
A divisioin of the sciatic nerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes.
Muscle that covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upward and inward.
Collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.
Transverse Facial Artery
Supplies blood to the skin and masseter.
Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm.
Muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.
Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.
Thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression.
Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.
Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.
Structures that temporarily close a passage, or permit blood flow in one direction only.
Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; veins contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs.
The lower thick-walled chambers of the heart.
Flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
White Blood Cells
Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms.
Form the prominence of the cheeks; cheekbones.
Affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.
Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth; elevate the lip, as in laughing.
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