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AP Human Geography Chapter 14

AP Human Geography Chapter 14 - Resources Rubenstein edition 10
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Acid Deposition
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere - where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid - and return to Earth's surface
Acid Precipitation
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, sown , or fog.
Active Solar Energy Systems
Solar energy systems that collect energy through the use of physical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Air pollution
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Animate Power
Power supplied by people or animals.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
Biodiversity
The number of species within a specific habitat
Biomass Fuel
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Breeder reactor
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
Conservation
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming it at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
Ferrous
Metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Geothermal Energy
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
Greenhouse Effect
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Hydroelectric power
Power generated from moving water
Inanimate Power
Power supplied by machines
Nonferrous
Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel
Nonrenewable Energy
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
Ozone
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 km above Earth's surface
Passive solar energy systems
Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
Photochemical smog
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
Photovoltaic cell
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
Pollution
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate
Potential Reserve
The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Preservation
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.
Proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Radiation waste
Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years
Recycling
The Separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material.
Renewable Energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
Resource
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use.
Sanitary Landfill
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
Sustainable development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development