25 terms

DNA Chapter 12 Miler and Levine

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anti-parallel
the two strands of DNA in a double helix are ________, meaning they are oriented in opposite directions to each other
thymine
nitrogen base found ONLY in DNA that pairs with adenine
telomere
repetitive DNA at the ends of a eukaryotic chromosome
deoxyribose
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
phosphorus
an element that is common in DNA, but not in protein which is why Hershey and Chase used P32 to tag the DNA in their experiment.
colvalent
the type of bond DNA uses, the electrons are shared between the atoms
adenine
nitrogen base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics; can also be found inside the head of a virus.
phosphate group
A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms, makes up part of the backbone of the DNA molecule
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent strands wound into a spiral shape.
X-Ray crystallography
the tool Rosalind Franklin used to make an image of the DNA molecule
gene linkage
genes that are located close to one another on the same chromosomes, they usually travel together during gamete formation, first described by Thomas Hunt Morgan
transformation
the process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria by the uptake of DNA, first described by Griffith
Watson and Crick
Nobel prize winners, developed the model of DNA
base-pairing
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
Griffith's experiment
demonstrated the transforming principle, converting non-virulent bacteria into virulent bacteria by exposure to heat-killed virulent bacteria
Avery's experiment
Demonstrated that DNA was the transforming factor. When DNA was destroyed --> transforming ability lost --> mouse lived.
guanine
A nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine
cytosine
A nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with guanine
Chargaff's rule
[A]=[T] and [G]=[C], they pair up across from one another forming two strands also called base pairing.
helicase
An enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication.
nucleotide
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Rosalind Franklin
Scientist who generated x-ray images of DNA, she povided Watson and Crick with key data about DNA.
replication
The process of copying the DNA before cell division.