IB Psychology Abnormal Psychology
Terms in this set (45)
What is considered Normal and what is considered Abnormal?
To determine what is considered ab/normal you have to consider the norms of the patient's culture. Otherwise you are just making a judgement call
What is the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: a handbook used by psychiatrists in the US to identify and classify symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Standardized system for diagnosis based on factors such as the person's clinical and medical conditions, psychosocial stressors and the extent to which a person's mental state interferes with his or hers daily life.
What is the ICD (World Health Organisation)
International Classification of Disease: international "standard diagnostic tool. A system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases. Indicate causes rather than purely symptoms.
What is the medical model
A biological perspective on mental illness. Assumption that disorders are based on physical causes (ie hormonal and neurotransmitters). Brain structure and function is a major consideration in treatment. Person is considered sick rather than morally defective.
The study of drugs which affect mental processes and/or behavior.
Today psychiatrists diagnose and treat using the biopsychosocial approach.
ABC's of symptoms
A-ffective symptoms: emotional elements, including fear sadness, anger
B-ehavioural symptoms: observational behaviors, such as crying physical withdrawal from others, and pacing.
C-ognitve symptoms: ways of thinking, including pessimism, personalization, and self-image
S-omatic symptoms: physical symptoms: facial twitching, stomach cramping, and absence of menstruation (amenorrhoea).
When a clinician expects certain groups of patients to be more prone to a certain disease and therefore interpret symptoms as related to that certain disease.
a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person. A label given to someone who is seen as different.
When someone begins to act or think as they are expected to; for example when someone is labeled as mentally ill, they may begin to act mentally ill.
Racial/ethnic-seeing people as different based on race
Confirmation bias-having expectations and looking for symptoms that match up to your expectations.
Powerless and depersonalization-telling someone that they will never get over ___
Culture bound syndromes/examples
Disorders thought to be culturally specific (ie. neurasthenia; China)
Complaining of physical symptoms that are non-existent
The problem of identifying symptoms of psychological disorders if they are not the norm in the clinician's own culture.
Not seeing color, race, religion, familiarity with the culture you are working in, language issues, patient must understand the requirements of tests.
The study of the identification of a disorder's symptoms.
The study of the causes of a disorder.
The measure of the total number of cases of the disorder in a given population.
The percentage of the population that will experience the disorder at sometime in their life.
The average age at which the disorder is likely to appear
Having a irrational fear of an object or situation.
Dysfunctional moods (ie. Major depressive disorder)
Physiological problems (ie. sweating, tinnitus, panic attack)
Joseph Schildkraut: depression is associated with low levels of noradrenaline.
Major Depressive disorder- symptoms, etiology, bio analysis, cog analysis, sociocultural analysis
Symptoms: low moods, low levels of self-esteem, lack motivation, and think everything is dark and will never be happy again.
Etiology: In the majority of cases the development of and course of the disorder will reflect complex interactions between several biological and psychological factors. Certain neurotransmitters and hormone levels may cause a depressive episode. Stress and negative events may also cause depression.
Bio- genetic predisposition, deficiency in neurobiological systems (hormones and neurotransmitters), and stress.
Cog- Irrational and illogical thinking
Soc- Severe life events, hereditary predisposition and environment,
Post traumatic stress (S&S etiology, Analysis 3X)
Symptoms: Anhedonia, emotional numbing, hypervigilance, passivity, nightmares, flashbacks, exaggerated startle response, intrusive memories, inability to concentrate, hyperarousal, insomnia, regression, lower back pain.
Bio- genetic predispostion and high levels of noradrenaline which triggers the emotional arousal
Cog-tendency to take personal responsibility for failure, feel a lack of control, attributional style, guilt, and flashbacks.
Soc-experiences of abuse, racism, oppression, fear, etc. can lead to a greater chance of developing PTSD.
A study in which participants are chosen on the basis of a variable and then followed to see what happens long term.
Inability to feel positive emotions
A form of behavior therapy based on the principles of respondent conditioning. It is sometimes referred to as exposure therapy or prolonged exposure therapy. As a psychotherapeutic technique, it is used to treat phobia and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder.
Habituation is a psychological learning process wherein there is a decrease in response to a stimulus after being repeatedly exposed to it
Body memory symptoms
Symptoms that result from a traumatic experience (ie. dizziness experienced by a woman that was forced to drink large amounts of alcohol and then being raped)
Indigenous healing practices
Therapeutic beliefs and practices that are rooted within a given culture. (heavy reliance on family and community networks. Incorporation of traditional, spiritual, and religious beliefs as part of the treatment).
Chinese Taoist cognitive psycholtherapy
Verses from Taoist writings that highlight main principles, such as restricting selfish desires, learning how to be content, and learning how to let go, are read and reflected on by the client. Research has found that this technique is more effective than taking medicine.
An approach that incorporates principles or techniques from various systems or theories. This recognizes the strengths and limitations of the various therapies, and tailors sessions to the needs of the individual or group.
selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors
The most common group of antidepressant; increase the level of available serotonin by preventing its re-uptake.
A therapeutic approach that teaches clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs
6 patterns of faulty thinking
Arbitrary Inference- drawing wrong conclusions about one's self by making invalid connections
Selective abstraction: drawing conclusions by focusing a single part of a whole. (ie getting a C on a test, and ignoring that you have an A in the class)
Overgeneralization- applying a single incident to all similar incidents (ie assuming that a relationship problem with a friend means that you are unsuccessful in relationships and have no true friends)
Exaggeration- overestimating the significance of negative events (Having SOB while exercising and thinking that you have a major illness)
Personalization- assuming that others' behavior is done with the intention of hurting or humiliating you.
Dichotomus thinking- an all or nothing approach to viewing the world (ie. you either hate or love me)
A therapy based on theories that consider collective traumatization to be least as significant as individual traaumatization. Essential component is the creation of an oral history archive to collect, study, and disseminate the survivors' memories. This allows them to look back and reconsider past attitudes, identity, and how the event has affect their lives.
Conducted a field study where 8 healthy people tried to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals. 7 of the 8 were admitted with the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In another portion of his study, he told a psychiatric hospital that pseud-patients would try to gain admittance, none did. 41 real patients were judged and 19 were called fakes. This proved that it was not possible to distinguish between sane and insane because of the lack of scientific evidence on which diagnosis are made.
Jahoda Mental Health Criteria
Realistic self-esteem and acceptance
Voluntary control of behavior
True perception of the world
Sustaining relationships and giving affection
Self-direction and productivity
Di-Nardo and the DSM
Di-Nardo et al. studied the reliability of the DSM III for anxiety disorders. The clinicians separately diagnosed 267 individuals seeking treatment for anxiety and stress disorders. They found high reliability for obsessive-compulsive disorder but not for assessing generalized anxiety disorder due to problems interpreting how excessive a person's worries were.
A model that suggests your vulnerability to depression based on the number of factors that could increase the likelihood of depression.
Diathesis Stress model
Interactionist approach to explaining psychological disorders. Claims that depression may be the result of a hereditary predisposition, with precipitating events in the environment.
Theroy of social factors in depression
Brown and Harris. A study of social origin of depression. Found on average that 82% of those who became depressed had recently experienced at least one severe life event or major difficulty. They also found evidence that of a pronounced social class effect. Established that social stress plays a decisive role in triggering many depressive episodes, but it also demonstrated that social factors may increase an individual's vulnerability for depression.
Rwanda Case Study
Study after the Rwandan genocide; key symptoms in Rwandan adolescents is diminished expectation, cannot give meaning to dangerous situations, and did not care if they survive. Living in the community was associated with higher rates of intrusive memories. Resiliency in children is intimately tied to the availability of family and community resources.
failure to ignore irrelevant information (= reduced cognitive filtering in the thalamus/cortex)
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