13 terms

Chapter 9 Key Issue 2 (Development)


Terms in this set (...)

9 Development Regions
Anglo-American (Canada and US)
Latin America
Europe: Western and Eastern
East Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Southwest Asia
Middle East: (Southwest Asia combined with North Africa)
Sub-Saharan Africa: south of Sahara
South Pacific (Australia and New Zealand)
HDI 0.94
- Language and religious patterns less diverse
- 90% use English and Christianity
- major producer of steel, automobiles until China, Japan, and Western Europe
- leading provider of many financial, management, and high tech-services
- world's most important food exporter
Western Europe
HDI 0.93
- almost all speak Indo-European language and Christianity
- a lot of competition among nationalities, migration of Muslims and Hindus from LDCs for jobs
- NIR at or below zero in most countries so immigrants responsible for most population growth
- World's highest development in Western Germany, NE France, North Italy, Switzerland, South Scandinavia, SE UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
- provide high value goods and services
Eastern Europe
HDI 0.80
- HDI decreasing from legacy of communism
- when communism gained control, experienced rapid development and promoted development through economies directed by gov't officials not private entrepreneurs
- 5-year plans featured three main development policies (emphasized heavy industry, dispersed production facilities from European to Asian portion, preferred to locate manufacturing facilities near sources of raw materials than near markets)
- Communism concentrated on basic industry so neglected consumer products --> housing shortages
- closed inefficient businesses which increased unemployment and prices for goods
HDI 0.94
- third major center of development, unfavorable ration of population to resources
- world's most intensively farmed land and highest physiological densities
- become power because took advantage of supply of people willing to work for low wages, government encouraged manufacturers to sell products in other countries at prices lower than competitiors, concentrated resources in rigorous educational systems and training programs to make skilled labor force
South Pacific
HDI 0.87
- much less central to global economy because of small inhabitants and peripheral location
- Australia and New Zealand were UK colonies so share many similar characteristics
Less Developed
Latin America
East Asia
Middle East
Southeast Asia
Latin America
HDI 0.80
- speak spanish or portuguese and Roman Catholicism
- Brazil was colony of Portugal and many remaining used to belong to Spain
- people concentrated along Atlantic Coast
- high development on South Atlantic coast because of high agricultural productivity and exports of wheat and corn
- development hindered by unequal income distibution
East Asia
HDI 0.76
- China is 2nd largest economy behind US and 1/3 of total world economic growth, GDP rose faster than anyone
- watershed year was 1949 when communists won civil war and made people's republic of china, nationalists fled to Taiwan
- priority initially given to rural areas, gov't took control of most ag. land, system assured production and distribution of enough food to support population
- world's largest market for consumer products, pushing down pries for consumer goods, low wages are driving down factory pay, regional economic inequalities
- middle management weak, quality control bad, banking bad, legal protection bad
- largest consumer of steel, copper, coal, cement
Middle East
HDI 0.68
- large percentage of world's petroleum reserves
- one of nine world regions that enjoys trade surplus
- used money to generate economic development
- many oil countries border Persian Gulf
- want to promote development without abandoning tradition cultural values of Islam, prevent diffusion of financial practices considered incompatible with Islam principles
- ADHi (Alternative HDI) says three causes in region's low HDI are lack of political freedom, low education and literacy, and lack of opportunities for women
- culture disputes, refuse to recognize existence of Israel, struggle with Terrorism
Southeast Asia
HDI 0.58
- Most populous country is Indonesia then Vietnam and Thailand
- tropical climate limits intensive cultivation of most grains, economic development limited by mountain ranges, volcanoes, typhoons, tsunamis
- keeps population growth low but technology and new medicine led to most rapid NIR in world since mid 1900s
- harvest products used in manufacturing, produce palm oil and coconut oil, rubber
- economic growth has slowed recently and in the absence of independent watch dogs and regulators, development funds were invested poorly or stolen
South Asia
HDI 0.58
- world's second-highest population and second-lowest per capita income
- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan
- ration of population to resources is bad
- india leading producer in rice and wheat
- agriculture depends on weather, india has 4th largest economy and major service provider
Sub-Saharan Africa
HDI 0.51
- population density lower than in any other less developed region
- major source of minerals, but least favorable prospect for development
- Europe stripped land of resources, conflicts because of boundaries
- dramatic imbalance between number of people and capacity of land to feed people
- tropical or dry climate and each can support some but not this large concentration