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HISPANICS IN THE U.S.: BUILDING A SOCIAL POLICY AGENDA Week 3: Ethnic & Racial Identity a pp n

Week 3: Ethnic & Racial Identity
Week 3: Ethnic & Racial Identity
Emotionally charged ~ deeply personal & political. For an ethnicity to exists, three conditions must be met: i A segment of society is seen to be different based on religion, language, race, homeland;
< The members perceive themselves as different; and
The members participate in shared activities around their common origin and culture. wmmmmmBBMBBMsmmmmm
Ethnic Identity
¦ Conveys a sense of belonging
Fluid- may change over time
• Ethnicity never exists in a vacuum but rather in a system-one ethnicity implies another.
• What factors affect ethnic identity?
Increases the Significance of Ethnic Group Membership
Large group size (relative to total population) Residential concentration
" Short-term residents (high number of newcomers) Easy and frequent homeland return Speak a different language Different religion from majority v Different race >¦ Forced migration ¦5 Come from a culturally different society : o Attracted to political developments in homeland " Homogenous class and occupation 12 Low levels of education i - Experience a great deal of discrimination I'.. Little social mobility
Sources of ethnic strength
Similar ethnic origins and interests will not dictate ethnic attachments.
Personal experiences matter.
¦ Two factors Being marginal to your group
;- Being marginal to the outside group -state & society Ethnic groups are differentiated by age, sex education, skill, and other variables.
• The least advantaged in various groups are the least aided by emphasis on ethnicity.
Decreases Saliency of Ethnic Group Membership Small group
.' Residential^ scattered .! Long-term residents (low proportion of newcomers) » Difficult and infrequent trips to homeland " Speak the dominant language •j Shared major religion ' Same race
Entered voluntarily Come from culturally similar society Repelled by political developments in home country
' Diverse in class and occupation 'i High levels of education • Experience little discrimination 14 Resident in open-class society
Intermarriage rates
Intermarriage rates
• Greater in immigrant gateway cities ¦ Increases with each generation ¦ 8% foreign-born Latinos marry non-Latinos, • 32% of second-generation, and 57 % of third-generation Latinos marry outside their ethnic group.
Tafoya: Shades of Belonging
• Racial identities operate as a proxy for something more than identity.
• Nearly half (48 %) Hispanics self-reported as white • 42% of Hispanics—outnumbering the total U.S. population of Asians and Americanjndians combined— identified as "some other race" (SOR).
• Hispanics who identified themselves as white consistently had higher levels of education, income, and greater degrees of civic enfranchisement than those who chose the SOR category ¦ These findings suggest that Hispanics may see race as a measure of belonging, and whiteness as a measure of inclusion, or of perceived inclusion.
Immigration and Citizenship
¦ Foreign-born Latinos more often say they are "some other race" (46 percent) than the native born (40 percent).
For reasons including intermarriage, whiteness is associated with distance from the immigrant experience.
• U.S.-born children of immigrants more often identified as white than their foreign-born parents, and the share of whiteness was higher still among the grandchildren of immigrants.
Age and Race
• SOR Hispanics are young: Average age of white NonHispanic Americans is 38 yrs old, for SOR Hispanics it is 24, and for white Hispanics it is 27.
• The median age for native-born SOR Hispanics is 16 years old; for native-born white Hispanics the median age is 20. • For the foreign-born population: the median age for SOR Hispanics is 31 yrs old, for white Hispanics it is 34 yrs old. The bulk of native-born Hispanics (70 percent) are either children or very young adults (Figure 7), while the foreign born are more often either young or middle aged adults • Generally one parent fills out the Census questionnaire and typically race is assigned by their parents. As these youth mature into adulthood, they may or may not choose to selfidentify in the same way.
¦ These second generation Hispanics are important, because they are replacing immigrants as the major drivers of Hispanic population growth.
WHO'S AN AMERICAN? historical reminder
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From: Society for the Scientific Study of Ethnic Minority lssues(Div45) [DIV45@LISTS.APA.ORG] behalf of Yvette Tazeau [ytazeau@IX.NETC0M.COM]
Sent: Monday, June 12, 2006 8:54 PM To: DIV45@LISTS.APA.ORG Subject: [DIV45] Fw: WHO'S AN AMERICAN? historical reminder
Original Message
Sent: Thursday, June 08, 2006 8:14 AM Subject: Fwd: WHO'S AN AMERICAN? historical reminder ililllllillllllllllllllllli^
1600s Most of various tribes scattered throughout the continent didn't know whether they were Americans as there was no one to tell them
1774 Continental Congress leaves it to each state to decide who shall be a voting citizen
1776 Full citizenship to white male property owners, with six states granting it to all white males whether they had property or not. Some states had higher property qualifications than others and some even required membership in a specified religion.
1781-89 Articles of Confederation accept in principle that the central government should regulate Indian affairs.
1789 Secretary of War is placed in charge of Indians
1790 Naturalization of foreign 'free white persons' permitted. Women earned the legal status of their husbands.
1795 Naturalization denied free whites unwilling to give up foreign titles of nobility
1812-21 Six western states join the union with full white male suffrage. Four of the original states abolish property requirements
1830 Indian Removal Act passes Congress, calling for relocation of eastern Indians to a territory west of the Mississippi River. Cherokees contest it in court, and in 1832, the Supreme Court decides in their favor, but Andrew Jackson'ignores the decision. From 1831-39, the Five Civilized tribes of the Southeast are relocated to the Indian Territory. The Cherokee "Trail of Tears" takes place in 1838-39.
What the new driver's license law means (SB 957)
tat the new driver's license law means (SB 957) | ICIRR Page 1 of2
January 14, uoi.'j Immigrant Integration Policy Symposium
December 29, 2012 Rill Brady and Mark Curran: Licensing undocumented immigrants will make state safer
View All News
What the new driver's license law means (SB 957)
January 08, 2013
What the new driver's license law means (SB 957)
On January 8, 2013, the Illinois House passed SB 957, which enables undocumented immigrants in Illinois to get temporary visitor driver's licenses (TVDLs). The bill noiv goes to Governor Quinn, who has supported the bill and said he will sign it. When that happens, Illinois will become the fourth state (and first new state since 2003) to authorize undocumented immigrants to drive legally.
What is a Temporary Visitor Driver's Licenses (TVDL)? The TVDL is an existing document that is now available to many foreign-born individuals living in Illinois. Since 2005, Illinois has issued TVDLs to individuals who do not have SSNs but who have lawful immigration status. Such individuals include foreign students, spouses and children of temporary workers, long-term visitors, and others who are not authorized to work under our immigration laws. Many of these individuals still need to drive on a regular basis to get to classes, shop, take their children to school, or attend to other family and personal business. SB 957 makes TVDLs available to undocumented motortsts who also need to drive, for these purposes.
TVDLs are visually distinct from regular licenses: TVDLs current use a purple color scheme, as opposed to the red scheme used for regular licenses. TVDLs are also clearly marked as "not valid for identification."
Why TVDLs instead of regular licenses?
The federal REAL ID Act requires that states can issue regular driver's licenses only to those individuals with lawful immigration status. Because they are. visually distinct from regular licenses and are marked as not valid for identification, TVDLs already comply with REAL [D while still enabling undocumented immigrants to drive legally.
What requirements will applicants need to meet to get a
To qualify for a TVDL, an undocumented immigrant must • Prove that she has lived in Illinois for at least one year; • Provide a valid unexpired passport or consular ID; • Provide other proof of her identity and residency that the
Secretary of State might require; • Provide documentation that she is not eligible for a Social
Security Number; • Pass all applicable vision, written, and road tests; • Show proof of insurance for the vehicle she uses for the road test;
• Pay a $30 fee.
TVDL? http://www.icirr.org/content/what-new-driver%E2%80%99s-license-law-means-sb-957 1/14/2013
Week 2: Demographic Characteristics &
• Exams: - will cover material discussed in class; including videos and articles.
-Around 25 questions, multiple choice format. - Will review materials during the week before.
• Reminder about movies/TV Shows: email me suggestions! Movies/TV shows related to the Hispanic/Latino community confronting issues of language, integration, politics, family, culture, stereotypes...
Who is American??
• 1774 Congress leaves it to each state to decide who shall vote.
• 1776 Full citizenship to white male property owners. Only 6 states provided it to all males regardless of property ownership.
• 1790 Women carried the legal status of their husbands. • 1795 Naturalization denied to those unwilling to give up foreign titles of nobility.
• 1857 No black person can be U.S. citizen • 1866 Civil Rights Act declares all persons born in the U.S. to be natural citizens ( except Indians!)
9 States Where Latinos are Largest Minority Group: 1970 Census
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The Making of a People
• Classification - created a pan-ethnicity- see top of p. 19 ¦ 1850 - objective measures to identity persons of Mexican origin • 1950 - published information of persons of Puerto Rican origin • 1970 - published information of persons of Cuban origin ¦ 1970-censusincluded self-identifier • 1976- Public Law 94-311 (the only law in nation's history to mandate the collection, analysis, and publication of data for a specific ethnic group • 1977-directive 15 • 1997 - revised directive 15-5 race groups, permitted more than one race choice, reworded the Hispanic category.
¦ Historic- an old & new population ¦ Contemporary migration & natural increase j sagos'msma^ammsmmm^mmmmsi
Pan-ethnic Classification
In the Next American Nation, Michael Find observes that "real Hispanics think of themselves not as generic Hispanics, but as Mexicans, or Puerto Ricans or Cubans or Chileans." Find is wrong. Well, he is right in the past tense; he is wrong in the future. You won't find Hispanics in Latin America (his point)...You need to come to the United States to meet Hispanics (my point). What Hispanic immigrants learn within the United States is to view themselves in a new way, as belongingto Latin American entire- precisely at the moment they no longer do.
-Richard Rodriguez from Brown (2002:117)
Defining features of the population
1. National origin, ethnic identity
2. Language
3. Immigration
4. Citizenship status
5. Generational differences - see page 40-41; racial & ethnic identity
6. Social status
Origin of U.S. Latino Population 2006
Puerto Rican
Other Hispanic Central American South American Dominican "Other Hispanic"
10.4 million 3.4 million 2.4 million 1.2 million 3.4 million
Myths About Hispanics
• A false belief used to justify action or inaction. • Sometimes based on partial truths or historic facts that are no longer true.
1. Hispanics are primarily a rural people
2. Hispanics are mostly immigrants
3. Hispanics have large families with many children
4. Hispanics do not value education
5. Hispanics prefer blue collar work
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Top Five States by Hispanic Population Size: 2006
Rank State California Texas Florida New York llinois
Population Size
8,385,139 3,646.499 3,139,456 1.886.933
Top 10 States and Latino Population 2008 llinois New Jersey Arizona New Jersey
State Population Latino Population 13,220,891
% of US Latino Pop,
Top 10 Counties of Latino Growth
• 4 are in North Carolina
• 3 are in Georgia • 2 are in Arkansas • 1 is in Indiana
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Changing Demographics
• Demography-the study of size, density, and heterogeneity of human populations • And of the changes that occur through fertility, mortality, and migration • Tells us the quantity, the efficacy, and variation of services needed.
Demography and justice
• Many issues are partially the result of distributional differences in the age structure & geography.
• Attention to age and location is less polarizing and emphasizes the impact of these characteristics. • Less dismissive than identity politics.