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A&P Nervous system test
Terms in this set (78)
What are the two organ systems that work together to maintain homeostasis?
Nervous system and Endocrine system
Responds quickly and the response is brief in duration. Moves your pen across the page and adjusts your eyesight from page to projector screen.
Responds slower and response is longer in duration. Adjusts the entire body's use of energy and directs growth and maturation of the body.
We maintain homeostasis by controlling other body systems with these three functions
sensory input, integration, and motor output
Monitors changes (stimuli) occurring both inside and outside the body
Interprets the sensory input and makes decisions about what should be done
Effects a response by stimulating a gland or muscle
What are the two major divisions of the nervous system?
Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system
Brain and spinal chord. Coordinates the processing of the info and the transmission of motor commands. Higher functions like memory, learning, speech, and emotions. Contained with bony structure for protection.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Provides communication between the CNS and the rest of the body. Contained in soft tissue.
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Receive info from the internal and external environment and send it to the CNS. Example: the touch receptors in your skin.
Receive stimuli from the CNS and take some action. Example: biceps brachii pulling your hand away from the hot stove.
Provide info about external environment. Found in the skin. Example: temperature, touch, pain, pressure, sight, smell, and hearing
Monitor the position and movement of the skeletal muscles and joints. (These get messed up when people have vertigo, which causes dizziness)
"to" the CNS
"out of" the CNS
control over skeletal muscle
somatic nervous system
control over automatic or involuntary regulation
autonomic nervous system
fight or flight. Ex: Increases heart rate
rest and digest. Ex: Slows heart rate
Rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli. Always go in the same direction.
Neural pathway reflexes follow
Regulate the activity of smooth muscles, heart, and glands
Stimulate your skeletal muscles
5 elements of a reflex arc
1.Sensory receptors (ex: temperature receptor) 2.Afferent neuron (sensory neuron) 3.CNS integration center 4.Efferent neurons (motor neurons) 5.Effector organ (Blood vessels, sweat glands)
Reflex functions (two)
Protects the body from sudden danger and Assists in evaluating the health of the nervous system
Adults: toe curls downward clenching foot. Infants whose nervous system isn't fully developed will spread toes
dilation and constriction of pupil in the presence or absence of light
blinking to protect the eye
avoidance of painful stimuli
Basic unit of the nervous system. Most can't divide (amitotic) because they don't have centrioles and therefore repair is limited if damaged
Smaller but more numerous than the neuron. Regulates the environment around the neurons. Retain the ability to divide.
Neuroglia (glial cells)
Large, round nucleus. Easily seen nucleolus. Most don't contain centrioles and therefore can't multiply, which leads to them not healing well. Numerous mitochondria. Nissl substance. Neurofibrils.
Clusters of rough ER and free ribosomes that give grey color to neurons
filaments that are important for cell to maintain shape
Usually branching. Receive incoming signals toward cell body.
Elongated portion of the cell. Carries outgoing signals away from the cell body.
May have hundred to thousands of these at the end of the axon. Where communication with other cells occur.
axonal (synaptic) terminals
Thickened region of the cell body where the axon begins
Branches off the axon. Axonal (synaptic) terminals will be found at the end of the branches
10 million in the human body. Form afferent division of the PNS. Receive info from a receptor (either axonal terminal from another neuron or specialized cell) about the external and internal environment and relay it to the CNS
Half million in the human body. Cell bodies always located in the CNS. Efferent division carrying info from the CNS to other tissues, organs, and organ systems. (Sometimes refer to them as spinal nerves)
20 billion in the human body. Cell body found in the CNS. Connect sensory to motor neurons. Responsible for coordinating sensory info and the motor response. Also involved in higher functions like memory, planning, and learning.
interneurons or associative neurons
neurons are classified in two ways
structure and function
Neurons are structurally classified by the relationship of the ____ to the ____ and ____
dendrites, cell body, axon
Two or more dendrites and a single axon. Most common of neurons. All motor neurons that control skeletal muscle are this.
Dendrites and axons are continuous and cell body lie off to one side. Action potential begins at the base of the dendrites. Most sensory neurons of the PNS are this.
Has one dendrite and one axon with the cell body between them. Rare. Found only in special sense organs where they relay info about sight, smell, or hearing from receptor cells to other neurons
What are the four types of glial cells in the CNS?
Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, and Ependymal
Glial cell in the CNS. Largest and most numerous. Secrete chemicals necessary for the maintenance of the blood-brain barrier. Chemicals cause the capillaries of the CNS to be impermeable to many compounds that could interfere with neuron function
Glial cell in the CNS. They wrap around axons and provide insulation made of myelin. Each myelinates a short segment of an axon, so many are needed to coat an entire axon
Gaps between oligodendrocytes
node of ranvier
myelinated areas of the neuroglia
Increases the speed that the action potential travels down the axon. It jumps from node to node. Gives a white appearance due to fatty deposits "white matter" of the CNS
Glial cell in the CNS. Smallest and rarest. Phagocytes that engulf cellular waste and pathogens
Line both the central canal of the spine cord and the ventricles (chambers containing cerebrospinal fluid) of the brain. Some produce cerebrospinal fluid and they have cilia that helps produce the fluid in and around the CNS
What are the two types of glial cells in the PNS?
Satellite cells and Schwann cells
Glial cells in the PNS. They cushion and protect neuron.
Glial cells in the PNS. Cover every axon in the PNS. Myelinated differently than an oligodendrocyte in the CNS
Progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths, accompanied by inflammation, axon damage and scarring of the neural tissue. Causes gradual loss sensation and motor control. Example: multiple sclerosis, heavy metal poisoning, and diphtheria
The ability to respond to stimuli
the ability to transmit the impulse to other neruons, muscles, or glands.
Where does all communication occurs for neuron irritability?
the cell membrane or neruolemma
Changes in the cell membrane potential causes what to be created?
action potential (nerve impulse)
Charge is more positive on the outside than on the inside of the cell membrane. At Rest. -70 mvolts
charge is more positive on the inside than on the outside of the cell membrane. Initiates or transmits an action potential
Charge is more positive on the inside than outside. The amount of depolarization necessary to initiate or transmit an action potential. -55 mvolts
process by which the positive charge on the outside of the cell membrane is restored by potassium ions moving to the extracellular fluid. Must occur before another nerve impulse can be conducted
What happens if you reduce membrane permeability to sodium (no sodium going in). This is how alcohol, sedatives, and anesthetics all block nerve impulses.
no action potential created
How do neurons to "talk" to one another or to an effector cell? Example: neuromuscular junction
Neurotransmitters may have ___ (depolarization) or ___ (hyperpolarization) responses
Excitatory & Inhibitory
If equal amounts of both kinds of neurotransmitters (excitatory and inhibitory) are released, will there be an action potential created?
A neurotransmitter use in the CNS and at neuromuscular junctions. Excitatory.
A neurotransmitter important in the brain and parts of the autonomic nervous system. Excitatory (fight or flight response-sympathetic division)
Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline
A neurotransmitter in the CNS and PNS. Inhibitory. Controls emotions, movement, and ability to experience pain and pleasure. Deficiencies causes Parkinson's disease
In the CNS and PNS. Inhibitory response. May be responsible for emotional responses, appetites, sleep
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy and Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
The Human Body in Health and Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Anatomy and Physiology
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