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Age of Viability

the age at which the baby can first survive in the event of a premature birth


the attribution of lifelike qualities to inanimate objects


a close, emotional bond of affection between an infant and its caregiver


the tendency to focus in just one feature of a problem and neglect other important features

Cephalocaudal Trend

the head to foot direction of motor development

Cognitive Development

development of thinking, reasoning, remembering, and problem solving

Cohort Effects

in a cross-sectional study, differences between age groups due to the groups growing up in different time periods


the awareness that physical qualities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance

Cross-sectional Design

investigators compare groups of subjects of differing ages at a single point in time

Crystallized Intelligence

the type of intelligence that involves the ability to apply already acquired knowledge in problem solving


an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits; more prevalent in older adults but not a product of normal aging


the sequence of age-related changes that occurs as a person progresses from conception to death.

Developmental Norms

the average ages at which people display certain behaviors and abilities


thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint

Embryonic Stage

the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months after conception through birth

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

a collection of congenital problems associated with a mother's excessive use of alcohol during pregnancy

Fetal Stage

the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months after conception through birth

Fluid Intelligence

the category of intelligence that involves basic memory capacity and speed of processing information


culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity

Gender Differences

behavioral differences between males and females

Gender Roles

expectations concerning what is the appropriate behavior for each sex

Gender Stereotypes

widely held beliefs about females and males abilities, personality traits, and social behavior

Germinal Stage

the first two weeks after conception


the inablility to cognitively visualize reversing an action

Longitudinal Design

one group of subjects is observed over a long period of time

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