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439 terms

Embalming

Embalming Terms - National Board Exam
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Abdominal Anatomical Regions
Nine region plan: by means of four imaginary planes, two of which are horizontal (indicated by lines drawn across the right and left 10th ribs and across the right and left anterior superior iliac spines) and two sagittal (indicated by lines drawn from mid point of inguinal ligament to the nipples of the chest, right and left sides. Upper row - right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac. Middle row - right lateral, umbilical, left lateral. Lower row - right inguinal, pubic, left inguinal. Four Region Plan: by means of two imaginary planes, one horizontal and the other mid-sagittal. Upper right quadrant, upper left quadrant, lower right quadrant, lower left quadrant
Abrasion
antemortem injuries resulting from friction of the skin against a firm object resulting in the removal of the epidermis
Abut
to touch or contact as with the tarsal plates of the closed eyes
Accessory Chemical
group of chemicals used in addition to vascular (arterial) and cavity embalming fluids; includes but is not limited to hardening compounds, preservative powders, sealing agents, mold preservative agents, and pack application agents
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS; a specific group of diseases or conditions which are indicative of severe Immunosuppression related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); persons dead having had AIDS may exhibit conditions such as wasting syndrome, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma
Action Level AL
Exposure Limits; these levels are established to ensure adequate protection of employees at exposures below the OSHA limits, but to minimize the compliance burdens for employers whose employees have exposures below the 8 hour permissible exposure limit (PEL). The AL for formaldehyde is 0.5 ppm
Active Hyperemia
hyperemia due to an increased afflux of arterial blood into dilated capillaries
Actual Pressure
that pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body
Adipocere
grave wax; soft whitish crumbly or greasy material that forms upon the postmortem hydrolysis and hydrogenation of body fats
Aerobic
in the presence of free oxygen
Aerosolization
to disperse as an aerosol; minute particles of blood and water become atomized and suspended in air when water under pressure meets the blood drainage or when flushing an uncovered sink
Agglutination
intravascular; the increase of viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels
Agonal
relating to the process of dying or the moment of death, so called because of the former erroneous notion that dying is a painful process; refers to Moribund
Agonal Algor
(moribund) decrease in body temperature immediately before death; the body tissues cool; is an antemortem temperature change
Agonal Coagulation
in reference to blood, a change from a fluid into a thickened mass
Agonal Dehydration
the loss of moisture from the living body during the agonal state
Agonal Edema
escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location immediately before death
Agonal Fever
increase in body temperature immediately before death
Agonal Period
period immediately before somatic death
Agonal Translocation
An agonal or postmortem redistribution of host microflora on a hostwide basis
Algor Mortis
post mortem cooling of the body to the surrounding temperature
Alternate Drainage
method of injection-drainage in which embalming solution is injected and then injection is stopped while the drainage is opened
Amino Acid
building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis; their basic formula is NH2-CHRCOOH - an amino group, an alpha carbon, any aliphatic or aromatic radical, and a carboxyl group
Anaerobic
in the absence of free oxygen
Anascara
severe generalized edema
Anatomical Guide
a descriptive reference for locating arteries and veins by means of anatomical structures that are known
Anatomical Limits
points of origin and points of termination in relation to adjacent structures; used to designate the boundaries of arteries
Anatomical Position
the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward, and thumbs are pointed away from the body
Aneurysm
localized abnormal dilation or out pocketing of a blood vessel resulting from a congenital defect or a weakness of the vessel wall
Aneurysm Hook
an embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels
Aneurysm Needle
an embalming instrument that is used for blunt dissection and in raising vessels, which has an eye in the hook portion of the instrument for placing ligatures around vessels
Angular Spring Forceps
a multipurpose instrument used in the embalming process
Anomalies
deviations from normal
Antecubital
in front of the elbow/in the bend of the elbow
Antemortem
before death
Antemortem Cellular Death-
before death; an example being Gangrene
Anterior
toward the front
Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
a bony protuberance, that can be palpated topographically, found on the ilium, the superior, broad portion of the hipbone; the origin of the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle
Anticoagulant Fluid
ingredient of embalming fluids that retards the natural postmortem tendency of blood to become more viscous or prevents adverse reactions between blood and other embalming chemicals
Apparent Death
condition in which the manifestations of life are feebly maintained
Arterial (Vascular) Fluid
the concentrated, preservative, embalming chemical that will be diluted with water to form the arterial solution for injection into the arterial system during vascular embalming; the purpose is for inactivating saprophytic bacteria and rendering the body tissues less susceptible to decomposition
Arterial Solution
the mixture of arterial (vascular) fluid and water which is used for the arterial injection and may include supplemental fluids
Arterial Tube -
a tube used to inject embalming fluid into the blood vascular system
Arteriosclerosis
the term applied to a number of pathological conditions causing a thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries
Articulation
place of union between two or more bones
Ascites
accumulation of serious fluids in the peritoneal cavity
Asepsis
freedom from infection and from any form of life; sterility
Asphyxia
insufficient intake of oxygen resulting from numerous causes
Aspiration
withdrawal of gas, fluids and semi-solids from body cavities and hollow viscera by means of suction with an aspirator and a trocar
Astringent
a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals
Atheroma
fatty degeneration or thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in arthosclerosis
Audition
the ability to hear; the auditory faculty
Autoclave
apparatus used for sterilization by steam pressure, usually at 250 F / 121 C for a specific time
Autolysis
self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance
Autopsy -
a postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition; a necropsy
Bactericidal Agent
destructive to bacteria
Bacteriostatic Agent
agent that has the ability to inhibit or retard bacterial growth; no destruction of viability of the microorganism is implied
Balsamic Substance
resins combined with oil; a fragrant, resinous, oily exudate from various trees and plants
Base of the Axillary Space
the arm pit
(Anterior) Boundary
established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the pectoralis muscle
(Posterior) Boundary
established by drawing a line along the fold of skin which envelops the lateral border of the latissimus dorsi muscle
(Medial) Boundary
established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the chest wall
(Lateral) Boundary
established by drawing a line which connects the two points where the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles blend into the arm
Bischloromethyl Ether BCME
a carcinogen potentially produced when formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite come into contact with each other; normally occurs only in a controlled laboratory setting and requires a catalyst
Biohazard
biological agent or condition that constitutes a hazard to humans
Biological Death-
irreversible somatic death
Bleaching Agent
a chemical which lightens a skin discoloration
Blood
tissue that circulates through the vascular system and is composed of approximately 22% solids and 78% water
Blood Pressure
the pressure exerted by the blood in the living body on the arterial wall measured in millimeters of mercury
Bloodborne Pathogen Rule
OSHA REGULATION (29CFR 1910-1030) regulating the employee's exposure to blood and other body fluids. OSHA DEFINITIONS: Blood. Human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood
Bloodborne Pathogens
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans; these pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Contaminated
the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface
Contaminated Laundry
laundry which has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials or may contain sharps
Contaminated Sharps
any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles scalpels, broken glass, and exposed wire ends
Engineering Controls
controls (e.g. sharps disposal container, self sheathing needles) that isolate or remove the Bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace
Exposure Incident
a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral, contact with blood or potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties
Occupational Exposure
reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral, contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
Parenteral
piercing mucous membranes or the skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts and abrasions
Personal Protective Equipment PPE -
specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard
Universal Precautions
is an approach to infection control whereby all blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known infections for HIV, HBV, and other Bloodborne pathogens
Work Practice Controls
controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed (e.g. prohibiting recapping of needles, and not allowing blood splatter or Aerosolization of blood while draining during the embalming process.
Blood Discoloration
discolorations resulting from changes in blood composition, content, or location, either intravascular or extravascular
Blood Vascular System
circulatory network composed of the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
Bloodborne Pathogens
pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans
Blunt Dissection
the separation and pushing aside of the superficial fascia leading to blood vessels and then the deep fascia surrounding the blood vessels, utilizing manual techniques or round ended instruments which separate rather than cut the protective tissues
Boil
acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle
Bridge Suture
Temporary Interrupted Suture; individual stitch knotted at the tissue edge; maybe applied prior to embalming to align tissues
Buccal Cavity-
vestibule of the oral cavity; the space between the lips, gums, and teeth
Bulb Syringe
self-contained, soft rubber manual pump designed to create pressure to deliver fluid as it passes through one-way valves located within the bulb; it is used to deliver fluids; it cannot be used for aspiration
Buffers
an embalming chemical which affects the stabilization of the acid-base (ph) balance within the solutions and in the embalmed tissues
Cadaver
dead human body used for medical purposes; including transplantation, anatomical dissection, and study
Cadaveric Lividity
Livor Mortis; postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of the blood
Cadaveric Spasm
a prolongation of the last violent contraction of the muscles into the rigidity of death; instantaneous rigor mortis
Calvarium
the dome-like superior portion of the cranium; that portion removed during the cranial autopsy
Calvarium Clamp
a device used as a means of fastening the Calvarium after a cranial autopsy
Canalization
formation of new channels in tissue
Capillaries
minute blood vessels, the walls of which comprise a single layer of endothelial cells; capillaries connect the smallest arteries (arteriole) with the smallest veins (venule) and are where pressure filtration occurs
Capillary Permeability-
ability of substances to diffuse through capillary walls into the tissue spaces
Carbohydrate
a compound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen; sugars, starches, and glycogen
Carbon Monoxide
an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
Carbuncle
circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that ends in suppuration and is accompanied by systemic symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis
Carcinogen
a cancer-causing chemical or material
Cavitation
the formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
Cavity Embalming
direct treatment, other than vascular (arterial) injection, of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and injection
Cavity Fluid
embalming chemicals which are injected into the cavities of the body following the aspiration in the cavity embalming; cavity fluid can also be used as the chemical in hypodermic and surface embalming
Cellular Death
death of the individual cells in the body
Center of Fluid Distribution
ascending and/or arch of the aorta
Center of Venous Drainage
right atrium of the heart
Centrifugal Force Machine
embalming machine that uses an electrical pump to create pressure either pulsating or non-pulsating
Center for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC, CDCP; a major agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, concerned withal phases of control of communicable, vector borne, and occupational diseases
Chelate
substances that bind metallic ions such as EDTA (Ethylenediamine-tetracetic acid)- used as an anticoagulant in embalming solutions
Chemical Postmortem Change
a change in the body's chemical composition that occurs after death such as hemolysis
Chemotherapy
the application of chemical reagents in the treatment of disease in man, causing an elevated preservation demand
Clostridium perfringens
anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon; A type of bacteria that is the most common agent of gas gangrene and can also cause food poisoning as well as a fulminant form of bowel disease called necrotizing colitis
Clinical Death
a phase of somatic death lasting from 5-6 minutes in which life may be restored
Coagulating Agents
chemical and physical agents that bring about coagulation
Coagulation
the process of converting soluble protein into insoluble protein by heating or contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde; the solidification of a sol into a gelatinous mass; agglutination is a specific form of coagulation
Coinjection Fluid
a fluid used primarily to supplement and enhance the action of vascular (arterial) solutions
Coma
the irreversible cessation of brain activity and loss of consciousness; death beginning at the brain
Communicable Disease
disease that may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between individuals by an infectious agent
Concurrent Disinfection
disinfection practices carried out during the embalming process
Concurrent Drainage
method of drainage in which drainage occurs continuously during vascular (arterial) injection
Condyle
rounded articular process of a bone
Conjunctiva
mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye
Contagious Disease
disease that may be transmitted between individuals, with reference to the organism that causes the disease
Contaminated
the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface
Cornea
transparent part of the tunic of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light into the interior
Corneal Sclera Button
that portion of the cornea recovered for transplantation in situ
Coroner
an official of a local community who holds inquests concerning sudden, violent, and unexplained deaths
Corpulence
obesity; having an abnormal amount of fat on the body
Cosmetic Fluid
embalming fluid that contains dyes and coloring agents intended to restore a more natural skin tone through the embalming process
Counter Staining Compound-
dye that helps to cover internal discolorations such as jaundice
Coverall
plastic garment designed to cover the body from the chest down to the upper thigh
Cranial Embalming
method used to embalm the contents of the cranial cavity through aspiration and injection of the cranial chamber by passage of a trocar through the cribriform plate
Cremated Remains
those elements remaining after cremation of a dead human body
Crepitation
crackling sensation produced when gasses trapped in tissues are palpated, as in subcutaneous emphysema
Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
a disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology, assumed to be a slow virus; because of unknown etiology, care givers using invasive procedures use extreme caution
Cribriform Plate
thin, medial portion of the ethmoid bone of the skull
Cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
Death
irreversible cessation of all vital functions; (nonlegal definition)
Death Rattle
noise made by a moribund person caused by air passing through a residue of mucous in the trachea and posterior oral cavity
Death Struggle
the semi-convulsive twitches which often occur before death
Decay
composition of proteins by enzymes of aerobic bacteria; aerobic proteolysis
ecomposition
separation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial and/or autolytic enzymes
Dehydration
loss of moisture from a body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem
Denatured Protein
a protein whose structure has been changed by a physical or chemical agent
Desiccation
process of drying out
Desquamation
skin slip; sloughing off of the epidermis, wherein there is a separation of the epidermis from the underlying dermis
Dialysis
separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane
Differential Pressure
the difference between potential and actual pressure
Diffusion
the movement of molecules or other particles in a solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached
Diffusion (Fluid)
passage of some components of the injected embalming solution from an intravascular to an extravascular location; movement of the embalming solutions from the capillaries into the interstitial fluids
Digits
anatomical term describing fingers and toes; the thumb is #1 for each hand and the large toe is #1 for each foot
Discoloration-
any abnormal color in or upon the human body
Disease
any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a body part, organ, or system
Disinfectant
an agent, usually chemical, applied to an inanimate object/surface to destroy disease-causing microbial agents, but usually not bacterial spores
Disinfection
the destruction and/or inhibition of most pathogenic organisms and their products in or on a body
Distribution (Fluid)
the movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries
Drain Tube
tubular instrument of varying diameter and shape, preferably with a plunger, that is inserted into a vein in drainage of blood and to restrict the exit of vascular embalming fluid
Drainage
discharge or withdrawal of blood, interstitial fluid and embalming fluids from the body during vascular embalming; usually removed through a vein in the body
Drench Shower
OSHA required safety device for a release of a copious amount of water in a short period of time
Dry Gangrene
condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed
Dye
coloring agent; substances which will, upon being dissolved, impart a definite color to the embalming solution; dyes are classified as to their capacity to permanently impart color to the tissue of the body into which they are injected
Ecchymosis
extravasation of blood into tissue; a bruise
Electrocardiogram
ECG (EKG); record of the electrical activity of the heart
Edema
abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissues or body cavities
Electroencephalogram
EEG; a record of the electrical activity of the brain
Electric aspirator
a device that uses a motor to create a suction for the purpose of aspiration
Electric Spatula
an electrically heated blade which may be used to dry moist tissue, reduce swollen tissue, and restore contour
Embalming
process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to temporarily inhibit organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance
Embalming (Cavity)
direct treatment other than vascular (arterial) embalming of the contents of the body cavities and the lumina of the hollow viscera; usually accomplished by aspiration and then injection of chemicals using a trocar
Embalming (Hypodermic)
injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or trocar
Embalming (Surface)
direct contact of internal or external body tissues with embalming chemicals
Embalming (Vascular)
the use of the vascular systems of the body for preservation, disinfection and restoration; usually accomplished through injection of embalming solutions into the arteries and drainage from the veins
Embalming Analysis
case analysis; that consideration given to the dead human body prior to, during, and after the embalming procedure is completed; documentation is recommended
Engineering Controls -
procedures that isolate or remove the Bloodborne pathogen hazards from the workplace such as sharps disposal container and self sheathing needles
Environment
the surroundings, conditions, or influences that affect an organism or the cells within an organism
Environmental Protection Agency
EPA; a US governmental agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority
Enzyme
an organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition
Excision
to remove as by cutting out; the area from which something has been cut out
Expert Tests of Death
any procedure used to prove a sign of death, usually performed by medical personnel
Exposure Incident
a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral, contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties
Extravascular
outside the blood vascular system
Extravascular Blood Discoloration
discoloration of the body outside the blood vascular system, for example, ecchymosis, Petechia, Hematoma, and postmortem stain
Extrinsic
from outside the body
Eye Enucleation -
removal of the eye for tissue transplantation, research and education
Eye Enucleation Discoloration
extravasation of blood as a result of eye enucleation
Eye Wash Station
OSHA required emergency safety device providing a steady stream of water for flushing the eyes
Eyecap
a thin plastic dome-like disc used to restore contour just beneath the eyelids; an aid in eye closure
Fat
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chemically, a triglycerides ester, composed of glycerol and fatty acids
Fatty Acids
a product of decomposition of fats
Febrile
characterized by a high fever, causing dehydration of the body
Fermentation
bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates
Fever Blisters
lesions of the mucous membrane of the lip or mouth caused by Herpes Simplex type I or II virus or by dehydration of the mucous membrane in a febrile disease
Firming
rigidity of tissue due to chemical reaction
Fixation -
the act of making tissue rigid; the solidification of a compound
Fixative
an agent employed in the preparation of tissues, for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure; many agents are used, the most important one being formalin
Formaldehyde
HCHO; a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol; a potential occupational carcinogen
Formaldehyde Gray
gray discoloration of the body caused by the reaction of formaldehyde from the embalming process with hemoglobin to form methyl-hemoglobin
Formaldehyde Rule
OSHA regulation limiting the amount of occupation exposure to formaldehyde gas
Furuncle
boil; acute, deep seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle
Gangrene
necrosis, death, of tissues of part of the human body usually due to deficient or absent blood supply
Gangrene (Dry)
conduction that results when the body part that dies had little or no blood and remains aseptic; the arteries but not the veins are obstructed
Gangrene (Wet/Moist)
necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by bacterial infection
Gangrene (Gas)
necrosis is a wound infected by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus, the most common etiologic agent being Clostridium perfringens
Gravity Filtration
extravascular movement of preservative fluids by gravitational force to the dependent areas of the body
Gravity Injector
apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (.43 pounds of pressure per one foot elevation)
Groove Director
instrument used to guide vein tubes into vessels
Hand Pump
historical instrument resembling a large hypodermic syringe attached to a bottle apparatus; used to create either pressure for injection or vacuum for aspiration
Hard Water
water containing large amounts of mineral salts; the water (vehicle) to be used in mixing vascular embalming solutions needs to have these mineral salts removed or sequestered
Hardening Compound
chemical in powder form that has the ability to absorb and to disinfect; often used in cavity treatment of autopsied bodies
Hazard Communication Standard/Rule
OSHA regulation that deals with identifying and limiting exposure to occupational hazards
Hazardous Material
an agent or material exposing one to risk
Head Rest
piece of equipment used to maintain the head in the proper position during the embalming process
Hematemesis
blood present in vomitus; vomiting blood
Hematoma
a swelling or mass of clotted blood confined to an organ or space caused by a ruptured vessel
Heme
the non protein portion of hemoglobin; the red pigment of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
the red respiratory portion of the red blood cells; iron containing pigment of red blood cells functioning to carry oxygen to cells
Hemolysis
destruction of red blood cells that liberates hemoglobin
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver; it may be caused by a variety of agents, including viral infections, bacterial invasion, and physical or chemical agents; it is usually accompanied by fever, jaundice, and an enlarged liver
Hepatitis B Virus
HBV; a severe infectious blood borne virus
Herpes
an inflammatory skin disease marked by small vesicles in clusters, usually restricted to diseases caused by Herpesvirus
High Preservation Demand Fluids
special vascular (arterial) fluid with an HCHO content of 25 to 36 percent
Household Bleach
a 5 percent sodium hypochlorite solution; twelve ounces of household bleach with 116 ounces of water yields one gallon of a 105 household bleach solution (5,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV; a type of retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Human Remains
body of a deceased person, including cremated remains
Humectant -
chemical that increases the ability of embalmed tissue to retain moisture
Hydroaspirator
apparatus that is connected to the water supply; when the water is turned on a suction is developed and is used to aspirate the contents of body cavities
Hydrocele
abnormal accumulation of fluids in a saclike structure; especially the scrotal sac
Hydrocephalus
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluids in the ventricles of the brain
Hydrolysis
reaction in which water is one of the reactants and compounds are often broken down; in hydrolysis of proteins, the addition of water accompanied by action of enzymes results in the breakdown of protein into amino acids
Hydropericardium
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
Hydrothorax
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity
Hygroscopic
absorbing moisture readily
Hypertonic Solution
a solution having greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared
Hypodermic Embalming
injection of embalming chemicals directly into the tissues through the use of a syringe and needle or trocar
Hypostasis-
settling of blood and/or other fluids to dependent portions of the body; the process of settling out blood to the capillaries
Hypotonic Solution
a solution having a lesser concentration of a dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared
Icterus
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia
Imbibition
absorption of the fluid portion of blood by the tissues after death resulting in postmortem edema
Incision
a clean cut made with a sharp instrument; in embalming, a cut made with a scalpel to raise arteries and veins
Index
the strength of embalming fluids indicated by the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gad dissolved in 100ml of water; index usually refers to a percentage; an embalming fluid with an index of 25 usually contains 25% formaldehyde gas
Infant
a child less than 1 year of age
Infectious Disease
disease caused by the growth of a pathogenic microorganism in the body
Inferior
from a given reference toward the feet
Inguinal Limit
anatomical structure forming the base of the femoral triangle; extends from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle
Injection
The act of forcing liquid into the vascular system or directly into tissues
Injection Pressure
the amount of pressure produced by an injection device to overcome initial resistance within (intravascular) or on (extravascular) the vascular system (arterial or venous)
Instantaneous Rigor Mortis
the immediate stiffening of the muscles of a dead human body
Intercellular
between the cells of a structure
Intercellular Fluid
fluid inside cells of a body (constituting about one-half of the body weight)
Intercostal Space
space between the ribs
Intermittent Drainage
Restricted Drainage; method of drainage in which the drainage is stopped at intervals while the injection continues
Interstitial Fluid
fluid in the supporting connective tissues surrounding body cells (about one-fifth the total body weight)
Intravascular
within the blood vascular system
Intravascular Blood Discoloration
discoloration of the body within the blood vascular system; for example hypostasis, carbon monoxide, and capillary congestion
Intravascular Fluid
fluid contained within vascular channels (about one-twentieth of the total body weight)
Intrinsic
from within the body
Isotonic Solution
a solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute to that of a standard of reference
Jaundice
conditions characterized by excessive concentrations of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids, and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient
Jaundice Fluid
a special vascular fluid with special bleaching and coloring qualities for use on bodies with jaundice; usually low formaldehyde content
Laceration
wound characterized by irregular tearing of tissue
Larvicide
Substance used to kill insect larvae
Lateral
away from the midline
Legionnaires Disease
a severe, often fatal bacterial disease characterized by pneumonia, dry cough and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms
Lesion
any change in structure produced during the course of a disease or injury
Ligate
to tie off an artery and vein upon completion of embalming
Linear Guide
a line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper lying structure
Lipolysis
the hydrolysis of fat; the decomposition of fats
Lividity
unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress
Livor
the livid discoloration of the skin on the dependent parts of a corpse; blue discoloration after death seen in lower level dependent capillary beds
Livor Mortis
Cadaveric Lividity; postmortem, intravascular, red-blue discoloration resulting from hypostasis of blood; the change that occurs in the latter parts of the death process
Lumen
the cavity or opening of a vein, artery, or intestine
Lysin
a specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues
Lysosome
organelle that exists within a cell, but separate the cell; contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates
Maggot
an insect larva; especially flies
Mandibular Suture
method of mouth closure in which a suture is passed through the septum of the nose and around the mandible
Massage
Manipulation of tissue in the course of preparation of the body
Medial
toward the midline
Medical Examiner
an official elected or appointed to investigate suspicious or unnatural deaths
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Microbe
microorganism; a minute one celled form of life not distinguishable as to vegetable or animal nature
Mid-Axillary Line
a vertical line drawn from the center of the medial border of the base of the axillary space
Millicurie
mCi; that amount of radioactive material in which 37 million atoms disintegrate each second
Modifying Agents
chemicals added to embalming solution to deal with varying demands predicted upon the type of embalming, the environment and the embalming fluid to be used
Mold Preventative
those agents which will prohibit the growth of mold
Moribund
in a dying state; in the agonal period
Mortuary Putty
a paste to fix or fill
Mouth Former
a device used in the shaping and contour of the lips
Material Safety Data Sheet
MSDS; this must accompany a hazardous product; a requirement of the Department of Labor and OSHA under the Hazard Communication Standard
Multiple-Site Injection
multipoint; vascular injection from two or more arteries; a minimum of two sites is prescribed in the suggested Minimum Standard For Embalming
Musculature Suture
method of mouth closure in which a suture is passed the septum of the nose and through the mentalis muscle of the chin
Nasal Cavity
space between the roof of the mouth and the floor of the cranial cavity
Nasal Tube Aspirator
embalming instrument used to aspirate the throat by means of the nostrils
Necrobiosis
(physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells); antemortem, physiological death of cells of the body followed by their replacement
Necropsy
Autopsy; a postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine the cause of death or pathological condition
Necrosis
pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organism
Needle Injector
a mechanical device used to impel specially designed metal pins into bone
Nephritis
inflammation of the kidneys
Nitrogenous Waste
metabolic by-products that contain nitrogen, such as urea and uric acid; these compounds have a high affinity for formaldehyde and tend to neutralize embalming chemicals
Non-Cosmetic Fluid
a type of arterial fluid which contains inactive dyes that will not impart a color change upon the body tissues of the deceased
Occupational Exposure
reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral, contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of a worker's duties
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSHA; a Governmental Agency with the responsibility for regulatory and enforcement of safety and health matters for most United States employees; an individual State OSHA agency may supercede the US Department of Labor OSHA regulations
One Point Injection
injection and drainage from one location
Operative Corrections
any and all techniques to treat a problem area; excision, incision, wicking
Ophthalmoscope
an optical instrument with an accompanying light that makes it possible to examine the retina and to explore for blood circulation
Optimum
the most favorable condition for functioning
Oral Cavity
the mouth and the vestibule, or the opening to the throat
Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Packing Forceps
embalming instrument used in filling the external orifices of the body
Palpate
to examine by touch
Parallel Incision
incision on the surface of the skin to raise the common carotid arteries; it is made along the posterior border of the inferior one-third of the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Parenteral
piercing mucous membranes of the skin barrier through such events as needlesticks, human bites, cuts and abrasions
Parts per Million
ppm; in contaminated air, the parts of vapor or gas (formaldehyde) per million parts of air by volume; in solution the parts of chemical per million parts of solution
Passive Hyperemia
increased blood in a part resulting from obstruction to its outflow from the area. Called also venous h.
Pathological Discoloration
antemortem discoloration that occur during the course of certain diseases; gangrene and jaundice
Pediculicide
substance able to destroy lice
Percutaneous
effected through unbroken skin
Perfuming Agent
Masking Agents; chemicals found in embalming arterial formulations having the capability of displacing an unpleasant odor or of altering an unpleasant odor so that it is converted to a more pleasant one
Perfusion
to force a fluid through (an organ or tissue), especially by the way of the blood vessels; injection during vascular (arterial) embalming
Peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum, the membranous coat lining the abdominal cavity and investing the viscera
Permissible Exposure Limit
PEL; the maximum legal limits established by OSHA for regulated substances; these are based on employee exposure that are time-weighted over an 8 hour work shift; when these limits are exceeded, employers must take proper steps to reduce employee exposure; for formaldehyde, the PEL is .75 ppm
Personal Protective Equipment
PPE; specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard; those items of protection worn to minimize exposure to hazards; those items worn by the embalmer to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids
Petechia
antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin
Pharmaceutical Agents
drugs or medicines
Pitting Edema
condition in which interstitial spaces contain such excessive amounts of fluid that the skin remains depressed after palpation
Positioning Devices
preparation room equipment for properly positioning bodies prior to, during, and after vascular embalming
Posterior
toward the back
Postmortem
period that begins after somatic death
Postmortem Caloricity
the rise in temperature after death due to continued cellular metabolism
Postmortem Cellular Death
death of all cells
Postmortem Physical Changes
a change in the form or state of matter without any change in chemical composition
Postmortem Stain
extravascular color change that occurs when heme, released by hemolysis of red blood cells, seeps through the vessel walls and into the body tissues
Potential of Hydrogen
pH; degree of acidity or alkalinity; the scale ranges from 0 to 14, 0 being completely acid, 14 being completely basic, and 7 neutral; blood has a pH of 7.35 - 7.45
Potential Pressure
the pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the injector motor is running and the arterial tubing is clamped off; Turner Portiboy injection machine
Precipitant
a substance bringing about precipitation; the oxalates formerly used in water conditioning chemicals are now illegal because of the poisonous nature to the embalmer
Preinjection Fluid
fluid injected primarily to prepare the vascular system and body tissues for the injection of the preservative vascular (arterial) solution; this solution is injected before the preservative vascular solution is injected
Preparation Room
that area or facility wherein embalming, dressing, Cosmetizing, or other body preparation are effected
Preservation
the science of treating the body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition
Preservative
chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria, render unsuitable for nutrition the media upon which such bacteria thrive, and which will arrest decomposition by altering enzymes and lysins of the body as well as converting the decomposable tissue to form less susceptible to decomposition
Preservative Demand
amount of preservative (formaldehyde) required to effectively preserve and disinfect remains; depends on the condition of the tissues as determined in the embalming analysis
Preservative Powder
chemical in powder form; typically used for surface embalming of the remains
Pressure
the action of a force against an opposing force; a force applied or acting against resistance
Pressure (Actual)
that pressure which is indicated by the injector gauge needle when the arterial tube is open and the arterial solution is flowing into the body
Pressure (Blood)
the pressure exerted by the blood on the vessel walls measured in millimeters of mercury
Pressure (Differential)
the difference between potential and actual pressure
Pressure (Injection)
the amount of pressure produced by an injection device to overcome initial resistance within (intravascular) or on (extravascular) the vascular system (arterial or venous)
Pressure (Intravascular)
pressure developed as the flow of embalming solution is established and the elastic arterial walls expand and then contract, resulting in filling of the capillary beds and development of pressure filtration
Pressure (Potential)
the pressure indicated by the injector gauge needle when the injector motor is running and the arterial tubing is clamped off
Pressure (Filtration)
positive intravascular pressure causing passage of embalming fluid through the capillary wall to diffuse with the interstitial fluids; causing passage of embalming fluid from an intravascular to an extravascular position
Primary Dilution
the dilution attained as the embalming solution is mixed in the embalming machine
Primary Disinfection
disinfection carried out prior to the embalming process
Procurement
the recovery of organs or tissues from a cadaver for transplantation purposes
Prognathism
projection of the jaw or jaws that may cause problems with mouth closure and alignment of teeth
Protein
organic compound found in plants and animals; can be broken down into amino acids
Proteolysis
decomposition of proteins
Ptomaine
any one of a group of nitrogenous organic compounds formed by the action of putrefaction bacteria on proteins; indole, skatole, cadaverine, and putrescine
Pubic Symphysis-
the fibrocartilage that joins the two pubic bones in the median plane
Purge
postmortem evacuation of any substance from an external orifice of the body as a result of pressure
Pus
liquid product of inflammation containing various proteins and leukocytes
Pustular Lesion -
characteristic puss-filled structure of a disease, such as smallpox, syphilis, and acne
Putrefaction
decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria
Radiation Protection Officer
the supervision, in an institution licensed to use radionuclides, that has the responsibility to establish procedures and make recommendations in the use of all radioactive matter
Radionuclide
a chemical element that is similar in chemical properties to another element, but differs in the atomic weight and electric charge and emits radiation; an atom that disintegrates by emission of electromagnetic radiation
Rate of Flow
speed at which fluid is injected; measured in ounces per minute
Razor Burn
razor abrasion; a mark of desiccation
Reaspiration
repeated aspiration of a cavity
Reducing Agent
substance that easily loses electrons and there-by causes other substances to be reduced; formaldehyde is a strong reducing agent
Resinous Substance
an amorphous, nonvolatile solid or soft side substance, a natural exudation from plants; any of a class of solid or soft organic compounds of natural or synthetic origin
Restricted Drainage
intermittent or alternate injection and drainage
Restoration
treatment of the deceased in the attempt to recreate natural form and color
Restorative Fluid
humectant; supplemental fluid, used with the regular arterial solution, whose purpose is to retain body moisture and retard dehydration
Restricted Cervical Injection
method of injection wherein both common carotid arteries are raised
Right Atrium
the right side of the heart seen as the center of drainage; used as a side of drainage via instruments from the right internal jugular vein and direct via the trocar or through the thoracic wall
Rigor Mortis
postmortem stiffening of the body muscles by natural body processes
Saccharolysis
decomposition of sugars
Sanitation
a process to promote and establish conditions which minimize or eliminate biohazards
Saponification
process of soap formation; as related to decomposition, the conversion of fatty tissues of the body into a soapy waxy substance called adipocere or grave wax
Saprophytic Bacteria
bacteria that derive their nutrition from dead organic matter
Scalpel
a two piece embalming instrument consisting of a handle and a blade used to make incisions and excisions
Sealing Agents
material used to provide a barrier or seal against any type of leakage of fluid or blood
Secondary Dilution
weakening of the embalming fluid by the fluids in the body, both vascular and interstitial
Sepsis
pathologic state, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood or other tissues
Septicemia
condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood
Sequestering Agent
a chemical agent that can "fence off" or "tie up" metal ions so they cannot react with other chemicals
Serrated
notched on the edge like a saw, as seen with forceps
Sharps
hypodermic needles, suture needles, injector needles, scalpel blades, razor blades, pins and other items sharp enough to cause Percutaneous injury, penetration of unbroken skin; may include other items not normally disposed of following use such as scissors, teeth, finger nails, and ribs
Sharps Container
OSHA required receptacle for the proper disposal of sharps
Short Term Exposure Limit
STEL; legal limits established by OSHA to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without damage or injury; exposures at the STEL should not be for more than 15 minutes and not repeated more than four times a day
Sign of Death
manifestation of death in the body
Sodium Hypochlorite
an unstable salt usually produced in an aqueous solution and used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent
Solute
the substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solution
liquid containing a dissolved substance
Solvent
a liquid holding another substance in solution
Somatic
affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit
Somatic Death
death of the organism as a whole
Split Injection
injection from one site and drainage from another
Sterilizers
oven or appliance for sterilizing; an autoclave that disinfects by steam under pressure at temperatures above 100 degrees C
Sterilization
process that renders a substance free of all microorganisms
Stethoscope
delicate instrument used to detect almost inaudible sounds produced by the body
Stillborn
dead at birth; a product of conception either expelled or extracted dead
Subcutaneous
situated or occurring beneath the skin
Subcutaneous Emphysema
distention of the tissues beneath the skin by gas or air; an antemortem condition brought about by a surgical procedure or trauma
Superficial
toward the surface
Superior
anatomically toward the head
Supplemental Fluid
fluid injected for purposes other than preservation and disinfection; supplemental fluids generally fall into one of three categories; Preinjection, coinjection, and humectants or restorative fluids
Surface Compress
cloth, wet or dry, folded and applied firmly to a body part
Surface Embalming
the direct contact of body tissues with embalming chemicals
Surface Discoloration
a discoloration due to the deposit of matter on the skin surface; these discolorations may occur antemortem, during, or after embalming of the body; ex. adhesive tape, ink, iodine, paint, tobacco stains
Surface Pack
an absorbent material, compress, saturated with an embalming chemical and placed in direst contact with the tissue
Surfactant
surface tension reducer; wetting, penetrating, or surface-active agent; chemical that reduces the molecular cohesion of a liquid so it can flow through smaller apertures; Wetting Agent
Temporary Preservation
the science of treating the body chemically so as to temporarily inhibit decomposition
Terminal Disinfection
institution of disinfection and decontamination measures after the preparation of the remains
Test of Death
any procedure used to prove a sign of death
Thanatology
study of death
Third Degree Burns
destruction of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues; seared, charred, or roasted tissue
Tissue Coagulation
a general term; the solidification of a gel into a gelatinous mass; agglutination is a specific form of coagulation
Tissue Gas
postmortem accumulation of gas in tissues or cavities brought about by an anaerobic gas forming bacillus, Clostridium perfringens
Tobacco Tars
the yellowing/browning of the finger nails from excessive use of cigarettes; a surface discoloration
Topical Disinfection
disinfection of the surface of the body or an object
Translocation
an agonal or postmortem redistribution of host microflora on a hostwide basis
Transplantation
the grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site, or of an organ or tissue from one person to another
Transverse
lying at right angles to the long axis of the body
Trauma
a physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence
Trocar
sharply pointed surgical instrument used in cavity embalming to aspirate the cavities and inject cavity fluid; the trocar may also be used for supplemental hypodermic embalming
Trocar Button
a plastic threaded screw-like device for sealing punctures and small round trocar openings
Trocar Guide
a line drawn or visualized on the surface of the body or a prominent anatomic structure used to locate internal structures during cavity embalming, from a point of reference 2 inches to the left of and 2 inches superior to the umbilicus
Time-Weighted Average
TWA; an evaluation of exposures that are time-weighted over an established period; it allows the exposure levels to be averaged generally over an 8 hour time period
Unionall
plastic garment designed to cover the entire body from the chest down to and including the feet
Universal Precautions
an approach to infection control; according to the concept of Universal Precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other Bloodborne pathogens
Vacuum Breaker
apparatus that prevents the back-siphoning of contaminated liquids into potable water supply lines or plumbing cross-connections within the preparation room
Vascular (Arterial) Embalming
the use of the blood vascular system of the body for temporary preservation, disinfection and restoration; accomplished through injection of embalming solutions into the arteries and drainage from the veins
Vehicle
liquid that serve as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids
Viscosity
the resistance to the flow of a liquid; the thickness of a liquid
Water Conditioner
a complexing agent to remove chemical constituents from municipal water supplies that could interfere with drainage and preservation
Water Hardness
quality of water containing certain substances, especially soluble salts of calcium and magnesium
Water Log
a condition resulting from the use of an embalming solution containing an insufficient amount of preservative to meet the preservation demand of the tissues; the interstitial spaces are overly filled, engorged with water
Wet Gangrene
necrotic tissue that is moist as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by bacterial infection
Work Practice Controls-
controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure by altering the manner in which a task is performed; prohibiting recapping of needles, and not allowing blood splatter or Aerosolization of blood while draining during embalming