52 terms

Adult Language Disorders

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-Aphasia
-Right-hemisphere Dysfunction
-Traumatic Brain Injury
What are the acquired disorders?
Aphasia
a language disorder that is acquired sometime after an individual has developed language competence the results from injury to the language centers of the brain
-Stroke
-Infectious disease
-Tumors
-Exposure to toxins
-Hydrocephalus
-Nutritional or Metabolic disorder
What are the common causes of aphasia?
Aphasia
People with _______ exhibit a broad range of language difficulties including reading and writing
Aphasia
This is not a psychiatric or a motor issue
795,000
How many strokes a year?
Ischemic and hemorrhagic
What are the two types of strokes?
Thrombosis and Embolism
What are the two types ischemic strokes?
Taxonomy
is the manner of classifying aphasia by using the characteristics that most differentiate each type of aphasia from the others
site of lesion, language disturbance patterns
Aphasia can be differentiated based on _________and __________________
-Fluency
-Comprehension
-Repetition
-Naming
The Language Disturbance Patterns of Aphasia are:
Fluency
the forward flow of speech including phrasing, intonation and rate
fluency
this is easy, smooth and well-paced
-Short, choppy phrases
-Slow, labored production of speech
-Grammatical errors
-Telegraphic quality
non-fluent aphasia is:
non-fluent aphasia
this usually correlates with injury in the frontal lobe of the brain
Language Comprehension
The ability to understand spoken language
Receptive Aphasia in Language Comprehension
-Main difficulty is in understanding spoken language
-Not auditory acuity or trouble hearing
Receptive Aphasia
this usually correlates with injury in the temporal lobe
Repetition
the ability to repeat verbal stimuli
Repetition
most informative when considered in conjunction with fluency and comprehension
repetition
After describing an aphasia based on fluency and comprehension, ___________ can further differentiate aphasia type
Naming
The ability to retrieve and produce a target word during conversation or more structured tasks
Anomia
word-finding problems
Anomia
-one of the most persistent issues in aphasia
-Also can be a type of aphasia if this is the only deficit
Paraphasias
patterns of word production errors in aphasia
Phonemic Paraphasias
substitution of a sound in a word
-tofa" for "sofa"
-more prevalent in nonfluent, expressive aphasias
Semantic Paraphasias
substitution of a word for the desired word
-"Chair" for "sofa"
-More prevalent in fluent, receptive aphasias
Fluency
Non-fluent Aphasia is a type of ______ disorder:
Language Comprehension
Receptive Aphasia is a type of _________ disorder:
Naming
Anomia is a type of ________ disorder:
Naming
Paraphasis is a type of _______ disorder:
7
How many major types of aphasias are there?
Brocas Aphasia
•Site of Lesion: Frontal lobe, premotor planning strip
•Motor Speech: Impaired, usually have Apraxia of Speech
•Fluency: Nonfluent
•Slowed, halting, labored speech
•Telegraphic (producing mostly nouns)
•Short phrases
•Comprehension: Relatively spared
•Leads to frustration
•Repetition: Depends on severity and presence Apraxia of Speech
•Naming: Poor and characterized by phoneme paraphasias
•Reading and Writing: Fairly poor, matches verbal language abilities, macrographia
Transcortical Motor
•Site of Lesion: Frontal lobe, superior and anterior portions
•Motor Speech: Impaired
•Fluency: Nonfluent similar to Broca's
•Comprehension: Relatively spared
•Repetition: Much better than spontaneous speech ** •Reading and Writing: Strong oral reading skills
Global Aphasia
•Site of Lesion: Diffuse damage in language-dominant hemisphere
•Severe problems in ALL domains of language
•Often nonverbal with limited gestures
•Understanding is very impaired
•Reading and writing very impaired
Wernickes Aphasia
•Site of Lesion: Superior and posterior regions of temporal lobe (Wernicke's Area)
•Motor Speech: Spared
•Fluency: Fluent
• Normal prosody
• Longer utterances
• Logorrhea
• Neologisms
• Jargon
•Comprehension: Very impaired
•Repetition: Impaired
•Naming: Moderate to severe impairment, circumlocution
•Reading and Writing: Can read and write, but have little
comprehension and writing is empty like speech
Transcortical Sensory
•Site of Lesion: Border of temporal and occipital lobes or superior region of parietal lobe in language-dominant hemisphere
•Motor Speech: Spared
•Fluency: Fluent, similar to Wernicke's
•Comprehension: Very impaired
•Repetition: Stellar, with echolalia **
•Naming: Moderate to severe impairment, circumlocution
•Reading and Writing: Can read and write, but have little
comprehension and writing is empty like speech
Conduction Aphasia
•Site of Lesion: Arcuate Fasciculus
•Motor Speech: Spared
•Fluency: Fluent
•Normal prosody
•Normal articulation
•Comprehension: Fairly intact
•Repetition: Severely impaired **
•Naming: Mild to moderate impairment
•Reading and Writing: Difficulty reading aloud **
Anomic Aphasia
•Site of Lesion: Not specified
•Motor Speech: Spared
•Fluency: Fluent
•Comprehension: Spared
•Repetition: Spared
•Naming: Significant impairment
•Reading and Writing: Can read and write, but have naming
difficulties present
Goal to treating Aphasia
Correct or compensate for speech and language deficits to allow for functional communication
Parallel impairment
similar language patterns across languages
Differential impairment
one language more impaired
Differential Aphasia
aphasia profile different between languages
Blended impairment
features of two languages mixed
Selective Aphasia
one language preserved, one shows aphasia
Right-hemisphere dysfunction
Neurological damage to the right hemisphere
Right-hemisphere dysfunction
This usually results in cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral disruptions with some language impairments
Right-hemisphere dysfunction
-Lack of awareness of disorders
•Neglect of the left side of the body and/or environment
•Difficulty recognizing faces (prosopagnosia) •Compromised pragmatics
•Tangential information and extra words during communication
•Difficulty with higher-level cognitive-linguistic skills •Dysarthria or dysphagia
TBI
Damage to the brain resulting from the impact of external forces
Polytrauma
result of military injuries; combination of open-head
and closed-head injuries along with other medical issues and PTSD
Close-head
brain is jolted inside the head
Open-head
skull and meninges have been penetrated; usually
localized