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psy test 2
Terms in this set (32)
Doing what normal person asks you to do
Doing what people expect you to do (can be passive: you know that the group wants you to change)
When situation is unclear, we look to others to guide behaviors.
Doing what authority figure expects you to do
Difference between a power authority & expert authority
Power: Actual control over you & if you don't do what they say, bad things will happen. (ex: police officer)
Expert: Don't necessarily hold actual control over you but you think that they know what they are talking about. (doctor) Doesn't have punishment
When teacher & person were in same room it decreased.
Teacher touches person while shocking it decreased.
Watching another teacher go all the way; increased.
Watches another person quit; they quit
How do social psychologists define conformity? Why, where and when does it occur?
Adjusting actions/behaviors due to what others expect. Involves groups (society, country). More likely to worry about conformity when situation is unclear. When you don't know how to behave you look around and take notes about what everyone else is and conform.
How do group size and group involvement/commitment affect conformity to group norms?
Group size: increases conformity but after about 4 people trying to get you to convince to do something then it does not really have an effect or make a difference.
Group involvement/commitment: Much more likely to act/behave that is consist with rest of group your involved with. More likely to conform. (Hazing increases conformity in ferternity)
Must have in conformity: Agreement by all people involved. even if 1 person breaks, the consistent conformity then you will feel okay to not conform and say what you truly feel.
What are norms? Differentiate a descriptive norm from an injunctive norm
"normal" typical attitude/behavior.
Injunctive: Tells us what we should be doing. Society expectations of the right way to behave. (Speed limit)
Descriptive: Observable norms of what people are actually doing. "everyone knows you can go 5 up to speed limit)
Where there is conflict between two, pay attention to descriptive. Make sure they are also inline.
What are the six principles of persuasion? What psychological processes allow each principle to work.
Be able to read a scenario and recognize any of the principles that are being used. Similarly, be able to
create a scenario wherein any specific principle is used.
1.) Simarities: More likely to comply with people you like & who are similar to us.
Why? Implicit egotism (we like ourselves) Balance theory and dissonance involved.
People defer to authority figures or people we think know better. Don't actually have to know what they are talkking about. (False authority) Why? Obidence effect.
More likely to comply and do something if we believe that everyone else is doing it. (Put $ in your tip jar or if line is busy keep calling because people must be calling the other lines) Why? Conformity effect
Commitment & Consistency
Getting people to get what you want by getting them to agree and then actually telling them what you want. Consist with their previous actions of saying yes. "ex: Asking to agree if your going to reserve will you let us know"
"Do you like helping people? Yeah . Ok help me clean my car"
Commitments must be active/voluntary & public.
Why? Can cause dissonance.
Likely to comply with people who have done things for us. Can make it seem like they are giving something up but they really arent but you still feel like you owe them.
why? Norm driven. if people do things for us we should for them
Feel like you owe people who has given something up for you. (doesnt have to be real they can trick you)
Nordstrom rack: Putting price that they have never sold for.
More likely to comply when opportunity is limited. Why? reactance.
ex: 8 other people are looking at this hotel rn.
Foot in the Door: Ask for small request. they say yes. & then ask for something big that you actually want. Why? When saying yes to small, then commitment /consistency gets involved (if you don't it can create dissonance & self-Perception) You already did it so must do it again because im a good person
Door in face
Ask for something big and then when they say no ask for smaller request that you actually want. Why? Reciprocal concessions: Makes it seem like you've given up something for them since you've already asked for a smaller thing.
Ask for something but leave out negative associations that might make them say no. Making it seem smaller. Ex: can you take me to the airport? yes. ok its at 5am
Bait & switch
Offers/Baits you w a good deal that doesnt exist and then switches to bad deal (what you actually wanted) once youre already there.
Getting people to comply through fear. If dont do it something bad will happen.
Scare in medium. & must have a way out. If too little: wont work & too much: Brain will stop listening.
Diffusion of Responsibility
(bystandard effect) The more people who are around, the less likely the person that needs help is going to get the help. Responsibility is divided up between everyone there so everyone thinks someone else will do it.
To ensure that it does not occur and to break it: you must assign people particular responsibilites.
"smoke in room study"
People checked on the smoke when they were alone, but when there was a group with them, then they ignored the smoke. (situation was unclear)
If situation is unclear and dont know whats going one, if no one else is doing anything then you wont either.
ex: Dead person? everyone else walks around because dont know if is dead, you will too.
Ignoring situation that might need help because everyone else is. Nothing is happening because other people are around.
5 stages of helping
1.)recognize someone needs help
2.)Take responsibility (my prob or someone else? Diffuscion of responsibility)
3.)Cost Benefit : Think if I help, what are the pros & cons. Whats gonna happen to me
4.)How to help? Know what to actually do to help
5.Help if you have done all those.
Pluralistic ignorance vs diffusion or responsibility
Both prevent from helping people but plurastistic ignorance is steps for finding need for help. and Diffusion is about responsiblity.
What did the "Good Samaritan" study tell us about situational effects on helping behavior?
Have to give a speech? To see who would stop and help
What they were thinking about (topic) didn't effect them willing to help BUT people in a hurry did effect it. Stopping to help someone has situational factors that come into play. Behavior involves you and the situation.
What are the norms about helping behavior?
Social justice: help those you BELIEVE, DESERVE help. Value and opinion because you decide who deserves help.
Social responsibility: General and its expected to help if you are responisible for.
Reciprocity: Help those you have helped you
Define, compare and contrast "Stereotyping" "Prejudice" and "Discrimination." How are they similar?
How are they different?
Sterotyping: (Cognitive thought/Facts) Assumption things about person because of the group they are associated with.
mental shortcut-heuristic & natural
Prejudice: (Value/Attitude/emotionally driven): Judgement based about sterotype.
Discrimination: (behavior) Actually do/ treat someone differently because of the prejudice, which is because of the sterotype.
Keeping stereotypes (Mind of perso who has stereotypes towards group)
Consistent things. We dont remember people who do not meet sterotypes.
Compartmentalize: Taking person/object out of group
Stereotype threat (Mind of person being stereotyped)
Anxiety felt of a member of a group that is being sterotyped.
Anxiety because feel that people are going to judge of sterotype, rather than who you really are.
Decrease performance & lets people confirm expectations.
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