13 terms

Galtung, Theories of Peace

What is the old idea of peace?
An internal state of human being

In law and order, the idea of a predictable social order even if it was brought on by force.
What is negative peace?
Absence of organized, collective violence
What is positive peace?
Cooperation and integration between human beings

Less emphasis on the absence of violence
10 ways of positive relations
Presence of cooperation

Freedom from fear

Freedom from wants

Economic growth and Development

Absence of Exploitation



Freedom of action


presence from cooperation
A pattern of interaction between nations so that there is an exchange of values between them, of commodities, services, knowledge, people etc
Freedom from Fear
A state of affairs such that individuals, and nations, predict with relatively high probability a major negative event in the future, an event with relatively high negative utility, and this expectation dominates their life and existence
Economic growth and development
an organization of the structure of nations and the relations between nations so that 1. resources per capita increase, and 2. these resources are better distributed.
Absence from exploitation
all value exchanges between individuals as well as between nations take place at, roughly, equal terms
all individuals and nations are regarded as having the same essential value, none is implicitly worth more and entitled to basically different types of life or existence than others
same as by "equality", but there is also the dimension of basic, fundamental rights, not only individual or national worth or value.
Freedom of action
all individuals and nations should have a wide range of possible actions open to them - both that they have been stimulated to have the imagination to conceive of such action and that they have the means to carry them out
mean that nations and the world should contain a large social and cultural diversity of forms co-existing side by side
we mean that at least parts of the nations and parts of the world are constructed in such a way that a change or conditions for a change are built into the structure