Terms in this set (44)
the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies.
all of those things a government decides to do. For example: taxation, defense, educate, crime, healthcare, transportation, the environment, civil rights, and working conditions.
the power to make laws and to frame public policies
the power to execute, enforce, and administer laws.
the power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that aries within the society.
the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government.
when the responsibility for the exercising of legislative, executive, and judicial powers is held by a single person or by a small group. In this type of government those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people.
when the responsibility for exercising legislative, executive, and judicial powers rests with a majority of the people. In this type of government supreme authority rests with the people.
a process by which a society decides how power and resources will be distributed within that society. It enables a society to decide who will reap the benefits and who will pay the costs, of its public policies.
a body of people, living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority.
four characteristics of a state
a legal entity
an ethnic term, referring to races or other large groups of people
a geographic term, referring to a particular place, region, or area of land.
members of a group who share customs, a common language, and ethnic background.
land with known and recognized boundaries
every state has supreme and absolute power within its own territory and cant decide its own foreign and domestic policies. it is neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority. This is the one characteristic that distinguishes the state from all other, lesser political units in the world.
the agency through which the state exerts its will and work to accomplish its goals. It includes the machinery and the personnel by which the star is ruled.
one person or a small group claimed control over an area and forced all within to submit to that person's or group's rule.
the state developed naturally out of the early family. The original family became a clan then a tribe and when they gave up their nomadic ways the state was born.
held that God created the state and that God had given those of royal birth a "divine right" to rule.
the social contract theory
argues that the state arose out of a voluntary act of free people. It holds that the state exists only to serve the will of the people, that they are the sole source of political power, and that they re free to give or to withhold that power as they choose from the government.
the law in both its content and administration must be reasonable, fair, and impartial.
the love of one's country; the passion that drives one to serve one's country, either by defending it from invasion or by protecting its rights and maintaining its laws and institutions.
exists where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves, in mass meetings. Can work only in small communities, where the citizenry can meet in a central place, and where the problems of government are few and relatively simple.
the government is conducted only by and with the consent of the people
representative (indirect) democracy
a small group of persons, chosen by the people to act as their representatives, expresses the popular will. The se agent soy the people are responsible for carrying out the day-to-day conduct of government (making and executing laws). They are held accountable to the people for that conduct, especially at periodic elections.
the sovereign power is held by this eligible to vote, while the political power is exercised by representatives chose by and held responsible to those citizens.
a government in which a single person holds unlimited political power.
a government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self appointed elite
this in power hold absolute and unchallengeable authority over the people.
governments that exercise complete power over nearly every aspect of human affairs
a centralized government. All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. The central government creates local units of government for its own convenience. Those local governments have only this powers that the central government chooses to give them.
a government in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments.
an alliance of independent states. a central organization has the power to handle only those matters that the member states have assigned to it. Makes it possible for the several states to cooperate in matters of common concern and, at the same time, retain their separate identities.
a separation of powers between he executive and the legislative branches of the government. The two branches are independent of one another and coequal.
chief executive (president)
chosen by the people, independently of the legislature. He or she holds office for a fixed term, and has a number of significant powers that are not subject to the direct control of the legislative branch.
the executive branch is made up of the prime minister or premier and that official's cabinet. The prime minister and the cabinet are themselves members of the legislative branch, the parliament.
is the leader of the majority part or of a like-minded group of parties in parliament and is chosen by that body. With parliament's approval the __ __ selects the members of the cabinet from among the members of parliament.
a majority will be right more often that it will be wrong, and that the majority will also be right more often that any one person or a small group will.
the process of blending and adjusting competing view and interests.
one who holed certain rights and responsibilities within a state.
free enterprise system
an economic system characterized by the private ownership of capital goods; investments made by private decision, not by government directive; and success or failure determine by competition in the marketplace.