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Chapter 8 - Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years Book: Development Across the Life Span 6th Edition (ISBN: 9780205805914)

According to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others' behavior.

Psychosocial development

According to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.

Initiative-versus-guilt stage

A person's identity, or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual.


A philosophy that promotes the notion of interdependence.

Collectivistic orientation

A philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual.

Individualistic orientation

The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people.

Race dissonance

The process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values.


The perception of oneself as male or female.

Gender identity

A cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender.

Gender schema

The belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors.

Gender constancy

A state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes.


Play that involves simple, repetitive activities typical of 3-year-olds

Functional play

Play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something.

Constructive play

Action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other.

Parallel play

Action in which children simp watch others play, but do not actually participate themselves.

Onlooker play

Play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing.

Associative play

Play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests.

Cooperative play

Parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose law word is law.

Authoritarian parents

Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children.

Permissive parents

Parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way.

Authoritative parents (The best way to parent)

Parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior.

Uninvolved parents

The theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children.

Cycle of violence hypothesis

Abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.

Psychological maltreatment

The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage.


The changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues.

Moral development

Helping behavior that benefits others.

Prosocial behavior

The process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles.

Abstract modeling

The understanding of what another individual feels.


Intentional injury or harm to another person.


The capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity.

Emotional self-regulation

Aggression motivated by the desire to obtain a concrete goal.

Instrumental aggression

Nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person's feelings.

Relational aggression

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