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Chapter 17 Inner ear - Equilibrium

Complex system of communicating chambers and tubes that the inner ear is made up of
membranous and osseous
Two types of lybyrinth
hearing and equilibrium
Two receptors the inner ear contains.
What is between the two labyrinths
Extracellular fluid located within cochlea
Inside the membranous labyrinth
semicircular canals
The parts of the labyrinth include the three ____________ which provide a sense of equilibrium
Contains a bony core and thin bony shelves
scala vestibuli
Chamber in the bony labyrinth above the cochlear duct, opens to oval window
scala tympani
Chamber below the cochlear duct, opens to the round window
What are both the scala tympani and scala vestibuli filled with?
vestibular membrane
Separates the cochlear duct from scala vestibuli
basilar membrane
Separates the cochlear duct from scala tympani
cochlear duct
Chamber in the membranous labyrinth which contains hearing receptors
What is the cochlear duct filled with?
spiral organ
Organ of hearing, rests on the basilar membrane inside of the cochlear duct
hair cells and supporting cells
What does the spiral organ contain?
hair cells
Receptors for hearing and are actually epithelial cells synapses with neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
What do hair cells have which contact the tectorial membrane
external auditory meatus
The auricle directs sound waves into what?
auditory ossicles
Amplify and transmit vibrations to end of stapes
oval window
Movement of stapes at _______ set up fluid pressure waves in perilymph of cochlea
scala vestibuli, scala tympani, round window
Pressure waves are transmitted from the _______ to ______ and eventually the __________
vestibular membrane
As pressure waves deform the walls of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they push what back and forth?
receptor cells
Different frequencies of vibration in endolymph stimulate different sets of what
calcium ions
As a receptor cells depolarizes, its membrane becomes more permeable to what
Inward diffusion of calcium ions causes vesicles at the base of the receptor cell to release what?
sensory neurons
Neurotransmitters stimulates ends of nearby what?
auditory cortices
Nerve fibers carry impulses to what part of the temporal lobes where they are interpreted
auditory cortex
What part of the temporal lobe interprets sensory impulses
Normal hearing can detect sound waves with frequencies from _______ or more vibrations per second
static and dynamic
Two parts of the sense of equilibrium
static equilibrium
Help to maintain the position of the head when the head and body are still
dynamic equilibrium
Help to maintain balance when the head and body suddenly move and rotate
bony vestibule
Where are organs of static equilibrium located within?
utricle and saccule
Expansions of membranous labyrinth
Tiny structure consisting of hair cells and supporting cells
Grains of calcium carbonate
gelatin and otoliths
What two things does gravity cause to shift, bending hair cells and generating a nervous impulse.
semicircular canals
What detects motion of the head and aids in balancing the head and body during sudden movement
cristae ampullaris
Organs of dynamic equilibrium
Cristae ampullaris are located in the _____ of each semicircular canal of the inner ear.
Hair cells extend into a dome-shaped gelatinous ______
Associated with joints, and the changes detected by the eyes also help maintain equilibrium.