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Art History ch. 1-5

Art History, Marilyn Stokstad 3rd edition Vol. 1
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Apadana
the great hall in ancient Persian palaces
Artistic Conventions
the norm; how everyone in that time period portrayed art
Ashlar Masonry
a highly finished, precisely cut block of stone. When laid in even courses, ashlar masonry creates a uniform face with fine joints. Often used as a facing on the visible exterior of a building, especially as a veneer for the façade.
Aten
A solar diety declared by Amenhotep IV to be the only god, represented as a solar disk with rays ending in human hands.
Atlantid
male figured column
Atlatl
notched throwing stick used by hunters to propel spears farther and faster.
BCE
Before Common Era
Ben-Ben
represented the very first mound of earth and marked the point where the first rays of sunlight fell from Re. The conical shape marked the Pharaoh's way to heaven by ascending the rays of the sun.
Bilateral Symmetry
the property of being symmetrical about a vertical plane
Book of the Dead
Collection of religious spells which were thought to be helpful to the deceased in the afterlife.
Buon Fresco
true or wet fresco; pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster
Cartouche
a frame for a hieroglyphic inscription formed by a rope design surrounding and oval space. Used to signify a sacred or honored name.
Clerestory
The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).
Composite Creature
Creature made with assorted body parts from different animals usually symbolizes a divinity
Conceptual Art
art that is intended to convey an idea or concept to the perceiver and need not involve the creation or appreciation of a traditional art object such as a painting or sculpture.
Corbelling
courses of strone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it.
Crenellation
alternating high and low sections of wall, giving a notched appearence and creating permanent defensive shields in the walls, giving a notched appearence
Cuneiform
an early form of writing with wedge-shaped marks impressed into wet clay with a stylus, primarily used by ancient Mesopotamians.
Cyclades
the pre-Mycenaean civilization on the Cyclades islands in the southern Aegean sea
Cyclopean Masonry
a primitive style of masonry characterized by use of massive stones of irregular shape and size
Cylinder Seal
Mesopotamian system of impressing symbolic notation onto wet clay with a marked cylinder
Dressed Stone
blocks of stone that have been cut and shaped to fit in a particular place for a particular purpose
Dynasty
a series of rulers from the same family
Faience
type of ceramic covered with colorful, opaque glazes that forma smooth, impermeable surface. First developed in ancient Egypt.
False Beard
a beard which pharaohs would wear that showed a symbol of royal authority
Fresco Secco
created by painting on dried plaster, and the color may flake off
Frontal Eye (almond-shaped eye)
eye shown in frontal view despite the perspective
Heb Sed Festival
an ancient Egyptian ceremony which was held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh.
Henge
a circular area enclosed by stones or wood posts set up by Neolithic peoples. It is usually bounded by a ditch and raised embankment.
Heraldic Pose
when two animals are symmetrically flanking vertical form; emphasizes importance.
Hierarchy of Scale
figures of importance are bigger.
Hieratic Scale
the use of different sizes for significant or holy figures and those of the everyday world to indicate importance. The larger the figure, the greater the importance.
Hieroglyphic
pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented.
High Relief
relief sculpture in which the image projects strongly from the background.
Horus
the falcon- He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.
Hypostyle Hall
a hall with a roof supported by columns
Iconography
n. the study of a group of representative pictures or symbols
Imhotep
Egyptian architect; first ever known by name.
Incise
To cut into with a sharp instrument; to engrave
Ka
a spiritual entity, an aspect of the individual, believed to live within the body during life and to survive it after death.
Labryinth
a vast maze built in Crete by Daedalus, at the command of King Minos, to house the Minotaur.
Lamassu
from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, Assyria, ca. 720-705 BCE. Winged, man-headed bulls served to ward off the king's enemies.
Lapis Lazuli
an azure blue semiprecious stone
Light Well
openings in the roof to allow light to enter room; Palace of Minos at Knossos
Lotus
Upper Egypt
Low Relief
a sculptural relief in which forms extend only slightly from the background
Mastaba
an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof
Megalith
a large stone used in prehistoric building. Megalithic architecture employs such stones.
Megaron
the main hall of a Mycenaean palace or grand house, having a columnar porch and a room with a central fireplace surrounded by four columns.
Memory Image
an image that relies on the generic shapes and relationships that readily spring to mind at the mention of an object.
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Minoan Column
larger at the top and narrower at the bottom.
Minotaur
a monster, the offspring of Pasiphaë and the Cretan bull, that had the head of a bull on the body of a man: housed in the Cretan Labyrinth, it was fed on human flesh until Theseus, helped by Ariadne, killed it.
Modeling
in painting, the process of creating the illusion of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface by use of light and shade. In sculpture, the process of molding a three-dimensional form out of a malleable substance.
Mortise and Tenon Joints
a method of jointing two elements. A projecting pin (tenon) on one element fits snugly into a hole designed for it (mortise) on the other. Such joints are very strong and flexible.
Mudbrick
a brick made from baked mud.
Necropolis
a cemetery—literally, a "city of the dead."
Nemes Headdress
The royal headdress of Egypt.
Neolithic
latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)
Niello
a metal technique in which a black sulfur alloy is rubbed into fine lines engraved into a metal (usually gold or silver). When heated, the alloy becomes fused with the surrounding metal and provides contrasting detail.
Ochre
(Noun) an earthy usually red or yellow and often impure iron ore used as a pigment
Paleolithic
The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.
Palette
a somewhat flattish slate object of various shapes, carved with commemorative scenes or motifs or, esp. in the smaller pieces, containing a recessed area probably or mixing eye makeup and often used as a votive offering.
Papyrus
lower Egypt
Passage grave
a megalithic tomb of the Neolithic and Copper or early Bronze ages found in the British Isles and Europe, consisting of a roofed burial chamber and narrow entrance passage covered by a round mound and containing human remains and funerary offerings.
Pithos
a very large earthenware jar having a wide mouth, used by the ancient Greeks for storing liquids, as wine, or for holding food, as grain, or for the burial of the dead.
Post and Lintel
a system of construction in which two posts support a lintel (beam) going across them.
Prehistory
the time before written records
Radiocarbon dating
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
Register
A device used in systems of spatial definition.
Relief Sculpture
Sculpture that's flat background is carved out to create raised shapes
Relieving Triangle
In Mycenaean architecture, the triangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself.
Repousse
formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face
Sacred Marriage
Marriage between a god and goddess
Sarsen
any of numerous large sandstone blocks or fragments found in south-central England, probably remnants of eroded Tertiary beds.
Sculpture in the round
Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions
Serdab
A small concealed chamber in Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased for the Ka to find
Shaft-grave
A deep pit used for burial.
Shaman
a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, etc.
Sunken Relief
The artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself
Sympathetic Magic
magic predicated on the belief that one thing or event can affect another at a distance as a consequence of a sympathetic connection between them.
Tell
an artificial mound consisting of the accumulated remains of one or more ancient settlements (often used in Egypt and the Middle East as part of a place name).
Tholos Tomb
In Mycenean architecture, a beehive-shaped tomb with a circular plan.
Thutmose
the nephew of Hatshepsut. a pharaoh
Tribute
gift to the gods
Trilithon
a pair of monoliths topped with a lintel
Twisted Perspective
A convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally
Uraeus Cobra
The Uraeus is a stylized upright cobra (or snake / serpent), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.
Votive Offering
A gift of gratitude to a deity.
Ziggurat
in Mesopotamia, a tall stepped tower of earthen materials, often supporting a shrine.