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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
DeCrans World History Tri 2 Final (Renaissance)
Terms in this set (34)
What is the Renaissance and what did people begin to focus on during the Renaissance?
Literally means: "rebirth"—philosophical & artistic movement as well as a "state of mind"
renewed interest in the Greek & Roman classics and achievements
change in how people view themselves & their world—people started developing talents
Explain some of the reasons the Renaissance started in Italy. Include the role of the Medici family.
1. center of Roman civilization provides constant reminders of greatness (art, architecture, coins, etc.)
2. trade- 1st to increase trade due to Crusades; thriving cities
3. wealthy/ powerful business class become patrons of the arts (Medici family)
What is a humanist? What did they believe? How did many humanists struggle as Catholics?
Humanism- focus on worldly surroundings and human talent/ potential
-studied history, poetry, music, rhetoric, grammar, sciences, etc.
-wanted to learn how things worked—emphasis on education
-Catholics conflicted between strict Church teachings and contradictory studies
-believed people should live meaningful life—not just prepare for afterlife
wrote The Book of the Courtier shows ideal man and woman in polite society:
Ideal man Ideal woman
How does Renaissance art differ from the Middle Ages art?
M.A.= formal figures show religious scenes/ topics
Ren.= more life-like, focus on human realism & real surroundings (used perspective to show depth)
also showed religious art, but more realistic figures
Describe both Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. (contributions, works, etc.)
Leonardo da Vinci- "Renaissance Man"- architect, inventor, artist, scientist, engineer
-detailed sketch of flying machine & submarine
-"Last Supper" & "Mona Lisa"
-dissected corpses for medical & artistic reasons
Michelangelo- painter of Sistine Chapel (pg. 357) "David", "The Pieta" (pg. 357)
-wrote Sonnets to Laura (a collection of love poems)
-scholar, teacher, poet who studied works of Greek & Roman classics
-taught to live a full, active life here on Earth & resist temptation of fame, ambition, or fortune or risk damnation
-wrote The Prince - shows the negative side of politics & gov't
-how to succeed as a leader: FEAR is better than LOVE because men will always be selfish
-men will always obey if they fear punishment
-set apart from other humanists—some called him the antichrist
-"the ends justify the means" (cheat, steal, lie, kill, etc. is o.k. as long as you get to the top & stay there)
What events allowed the Renaissance to move to northern Europe?
-Late 1400s Northern European cities began growing and trading with Italian cities
-French and English kings were patrons of art; sometimes hiring Italian artists & architects
-Many northern artists
travelled to Italy to learn,
and returned with new skills
-Albrecht Durer (German)
How are Northern European artistic styles different from Italian styles?
-Italian= more Greek & Roman in style (perfect human bodies)
-Northern= more realistic bodies; more focus on everyday occurrences; accurate settings
-Both continued to reflect Christian themes
What is a Christian Humanist? What does Thomas More's Utopia promote?
Christian Humanists focused on "Christianity of the heart" and downplayed Church's role in people's faith
Thomas More's Ideal society
Criticized corrupt government & conflicts between "haves" and "have-nots"
Wrote in Utopia that shared work and property compelled everyone to work harder, so there would never be a lack of necessities
Why is William Shakespeare considered such a great playwright? Why is this time period referred to as the Elizabethan Age?
-Ability to convert common stories into great drama
-Focused on human condition instead of just God/ gods
-Celebrated today because his plays are just as applicable today
-Elizabethan Age= Queen Elizabeth's power and support of the arts
What are the results of the printing press invention in Europe?
-Immediately allows for cheaper/ easier access to books
*Bible= first book copied
-Literacy rates increase
-More people exposed to new ideas
-Many begin to question some Church teachings
Describe Luther's abrupt experience that caused him to become a monk. How do you think this might have informed his "revolutionary" spirit?
Law school student caught in a storm, prayed to St. Anne, promising to become a monk
-Much of his early life was filled with a fearful image of God
-His experience foreshadows his abruptness in leaving the Church
Describe some of the forces that were working against the Church and some of the criticisms of the Church and Church leaders during the Renaissance.
1. emphasis on secularism; 2. printing press; 3. divided Germany hard to unite in agreement; 4. northern merchants resented Church taxes
Many felt Church lost sight of its spiritual mission & cared more for $ than saving souls
-Church leaders living extravagant lifestyles and taking part in politics
-Some priests poorly educated
*Church ignores these changes & criticisms (and will later regret it)
What is an indulgence, and how was Johann Tetzel & Pope Leo X abusing this practice? What was Luther's famous response?
-Indulgence- pardon from punishment for sin for $ payment
-Pope Leo X wanted to raise $ to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; Johann Tetzel was selling indulgences in Germany
-Luther publicly challenges Church leaders selling indulgences
-posted 95 theses (statements) against Church (simony, indulgences, poor behavior of leaders, etc.)
Describe the important events in Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation.
A. Luther's Teachings
-believed good deeds mean nothing to God, only inner faith in God
-All Church teachings must be from the Bible
- people of faith are equal; no need for priests to interpret Bible
Luther's break with the Church & Pope's response
Luther spreads his word rapidly through printing press
Pope excommunicates Luther
Emperor Charles V brands him an outlaw
Luther goes into hiding, working all the while on translating Bible into German vernacular
Peasant's Revolt & War over Protestantism
Oppressed peasants interpreted Luther's protest as freedom to attack Church officials and property
Chaos caused Luther to denounce Peasant's Revolt
German armies crushed revolt killing around 100,000 people
Many northern princes supported Luther
War between northern "protester" princes vs. southern Catholic princes
How did Protestantism spread through "Peace of Augsburg"
Charles V could not force all the Princes who supported Lutheranism to return to the Church, so made peace
"Peace of Augsburg" states that princes can choose to be Catholic or Lutheran, and their subjects must follow or move away
most of North went w/ Luther
is this freedom of religion?
Why did Henry the VIII want to break away from the Church? Describe the controversy surrounding this break.
Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife (no sons)
Pope refused Henry's request
Henry leaves the Church & starts Church of England w/ himself as the leader
"Anglican" Church grants his divorce (+5)
What was Elizabeth I's role in changing religion in England?
Established Anglican Church as the only legal church in England
Elizabeth's Anglican Church had both Catholic and Protestant elements, making it more acceptable by both
Elizabeth would still face opposition from Catholic and Protestant leaders
How did Calvinism get its start? Include the idea of predestination.
John Calvin wrote detailed religious beliefs for his followers (became known as Calvinism)
The Institutes of the Christian Religion= explains Calvinist beliefs; organizes Luther's protestant beliefs
Predestination- God chose who would be saved at the beginning of time—would become very popular belief
What is Theocracy, and how was it used in Geneva?
Religious doctrine becomes official religion and dictates laws & gov't
Church leaders are the political leaders
Geneva, Switzerland= no dancing, cards, drinking, etc.; punishments for breaking these rules
How did Calvinism spread, and who/what came into conflict with this religion?
Many Protestant religions trace their religions to Calvinist roots
Huguenots- (French Calvinists) opposed by Catholic armies in civil wars
Puritans will eventually
come from Calvinism
Describe the Catholic Reformation. Explain its inspirations and the reorganization of the Church's power.
A movement within the Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation
Inspirations: Jesuits- started by St. Ignatius of Loyola; founded schools &
Reforms: Pope Paul III-
investigated church abuses;
called Council of Trent
(regulated Church practices
Index of Forbidden Books
How did the Catholic Reformation change Europe socially and politically?
1. Protestant churches grew in number and followers
2. Catholic Church organized and unified
-Both emphasized education, new schools, universities, etc.
-Women continue to have a lack of leadership opportunities in both
Catholic Church loses political power, giving way to political leaders who consolidated power under nations
Compare how scientists in the Middle Ages differed from Renaissance scientists? Include heliocentric and geocentric theories in your answer.
Middle Ages "scientists" referred to Greek/ Roman texts or Bible
a. believed in geocentric (Earth-centered universe) -didn't challenge preconceived notions
b. people made no distinction between magic and science; relying on myth, religion, etc.
Renaissance scientists Scientific Revolution: new observations & willingness to question previous theories to solve new problems
a. Heliocentric theory based on science & observation
b. new scientists= relied on a standard of math and logical experiments (looking for "proof")
Explain how Galileo added to Copernicus' heliocentric theory. Why was the Church so upset with these findings?
Copernicus correctly theorized that the sun was the center of the universe, but did not have scientific evidence
Galileo used a telescope to prove Copernicus' theory
Church was threatened by this because it would lead to other questioning of Church teachings
What is the result of the confrontation between Galileo and the Inquisition?
Galileo forced to recant, put under house arrest & died in his home
-his books continued circulating
-Church asserts itself firmly against science
Explain how the scientific method was different from using history and Church teachings for answers.
Problem→ Hypothesis→ Test→ Analyze Data →New Conclusion
In the past, scientists relied on previous "truths" from ancient texts and Church doctrine
How do both Descartes and Bacon change the way scientists thought about their methods?
Bacon- Assumptions must be proven through repeated scientific experiments; empiricism (experimental method)
Descartes- No assumption should be accepted w/o questioning first
Everything must be proven with known facts
All scientific disciplines should be studied together
Explain the importance of Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation. How does he describe the universe?
Universal gravitation- all bodies attract each other (sun & Earth's gravitational pull keep Earth orbiting around the sun)
People finally started looking at all of God's Creation working as a set of laws (clockmaker)
Briefly describe the importance of the following:
Scientific instruments-Human dissection- Inoculations-
Scientific Instruments- microscope, thermometer, etc. offers precise measurements & observations
Human Dissection- offers actual look at how the human body worked (instead of using animals); prisoners used as cadavers
Inoculations- exposure to less deadly form of disease allows people to build up immunities (small pox)
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