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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (36)
concerned with the intent, means and consequences of moral behavior. It entails philosophical thinking about morality, moral problems, and moral judgments.
-a discipline concerned with questions of right and wrong
formal principles of reasoning;the science of evaluating arguments
deals with questions of being and existence
deals with evaluating knowledge claims
deals with questions of value
deals with questions of beauty. Includes philosophy of art, music, literature and architecture. It also values creativity, originality, and innovation
philosophy of law
descriptive empirical inquiry
concerns historical, sociological, anthropological, and psychological explanations of our system of moral behavior. It looks at the world as it is, dealing with facts (rather than values), so it is of little interest to philosophers
focused on identifying which kinds of actions are good or bad, right or wrong, examining the plausibility of various moral rules, and determining which character traits qualify as virtues or vices.
Normative statements are assertions or arguments that express value judgments, often taking the form that something is good or bad, right or wrong, better or worse, etc. Tells us what we "ought" or "ought not" do.
deals primarily with the meaning of ethical terms, the language of morals. It asks semantic questions about the terminology of ethics.
Serves as a systematic inquiry which aims to formulate precisely the correct methods for justifying normative statements or opinions.
The rationale is that unless and until we are quite clear on the meaning of our terms, the likelihood of miscommunication is high.
all of our ethical obligations presuppose a principle of benevolence. We have an obligation to do good and prevent harm. Our rules, if not our actions, must have some bearing on increasing good and decreasing evil.
holds that different people do things differently, and thus moral evaluation cannot be separated from the beliefs and practices of a particular culture. what is right in one culture, may not be right in another
global viewpoint about all knowledge.
a doctrine that holds that truth is relative to the perspective of the judging subject. "Truth" then is subjective and can be attributed to culture, a particular time period, opinion, or taste.
Ethical relativism/descriptive ethical relativism
distinct from cultural relativism in that the values or ethical principles of individuals or groups differ and conflict in a fundamental way.
The reasons behind the different practices must clash.
denies that there is always one correct moral evaluation. it holds that there is no single true or most justified morality.
There is nothing about what ought to be the case, or about what we ought to do, that follows from them. Nor does it floow that persons, depending on their cultural attachments, ought to do different things.
normative ethical relativism
the doctrine that it is morally wrong to pass judgment on or to interfere with the moral practices of others who have adopted ethical practices different from one's own.
it asserts that something is wrong or blameworthy if some person (or group) thinks it is wrong or blameworthy.
what is right or good for one individual or society is not right or good for another, even if the situations involved are similar
some people are skeptical about ethics altogether and doubt that there is a truly universal moral system and that moral claims can be true when they amount to matters of opinion or taste.
goes much further than moral skepticism.
Dismisses all moral claims as meaningless. It is likened to moral anarchy.
similar to skepticism but more severe in that it precludes the possibility that we can ever find a basis for moral claims. tis similar to subjectivism in claiming that ethical beliefs are nothing more than expressions of the subjective feelings, preferences, or choices of the people who endorse them.
holds that there is one, and only one, correct moral evaluation for any ethical question.
-contends that some moral rules are binding on everyone, regardless of culture, negates consequentialism because it regards certain kinds of actions as always wrong or always obligatory whatever the consequences.
one can be an absolutist and still accept descriptive ethical relativism.
holds that moral truths are independent of the person making the claim, and the time and place in which he or she makes the claim.
one can regard objectivism as the denial of ethical relativism, in that it maintains that there are transcultural standards that have objective validity-that are valid regardless of what individuals, groups, or societies happen to believe
holds that moral judgments are feeling responses of individuals. Our moral sense is derived by our feelings.
subjectivist claims sharply contrast with the objectivist claim that moral judgments can be rationally defensible, true or false, and that ethical values exist independently of the feelings of individuals at particular times.
belief in objective values can be dismissed as illusion or fiction.
individual feeling responses.
-the most important advocate of ethical subjectivism
He located the foundation of ethics in our moral sentiments-our feelings of sympathy for others.
Hume argues that morality stems from our feelings-our emotions, our feelings lead us to sympathize with the needs of others and this helps lead us to benevolence.
"Reason is, and only ought to be, a slave of the passions."
A.J. Ayers and Bertrand Russell
supporters of ethical subjectivism in the 20th century.
subjectivism's great opponents and Hume's contemporary.
He was insulted by Hume's dismissal of reason and inspired to devise and ethical system grounded in reason
John L. Mackie
argued that it is erroneous to think that there are objective moral facts, but there are good reasons to for us to take ethics seriously.
Charles L. Stevenson
developed emotivism which is regarded as an improved version of subjectivism.
Divine Command Theory (DCT)
an ethical theory that contends that morality depends upon the will of God as promulgated by divine commands.
It holds that which is "morally right" is a matter of being commanded by God and "morally wrong" is a matter of being forbidden by God.
Whatever is commanded is morally obligatory, and whatever is forbidden is morally wrong.
Philosophical supporters of DCT
medieval- William of Ockham
protestant reformers- Martin Luther and John Calvin
British philosophers/theologians- John Locke, George Berkeley, and William Paley
Natural Law Theory (NLT)
regards morality to be grounded in reason. It is objective and universal, unchanging and eternal, and discoverable through the proper use of human reason.
NLT holds that God commands actions because they are morally right beforehand and independently.
NLT claims that right and wrong are universally knowable-accessible through our rational faculties. The laws of morality preexist and are discoverable.
Fits well with ethical objectivism and absolutism.
Aristotle and Roman Philosopher Cicero
believed that natural law exists as part of the natural order
the view that peiple are so constituted by their natura that they always pursue self-interest as an end in itself. This theory is descriptive, that is, it makes a claim that it is the case that people are incapable of desiring or pursing anything but their own interest as an end in itself.
holds that one ought to pursue self interest as an end in itself.
It requires us to look after our own interests exclusively. This theory is normative, as it tells us what we should or shouldn't do.
It is not content drive: one many hold any theory of what is good or right, or what one's self interest or well being consists in.
It is in your interest to see others succeed and prosper
the view which assigns to the state the function of looking after the well-being or welfare of its people.
The general idea is that the government is by far the best institution to provide for the general welfare
entails restrictions on our liberties for our own good/best interests. Ex: as a citizen, we must pay for the medical bills of the population, the maybe we should have a say regarding fast/junk food, tobacco/alcohol use, etc. It is in our interest that others live healthy, risk-averse lifestyles.
what makes us behave the way that we do.
"ought implies can"
formed as hunter gatherers.
acts of kindness with no thoughts of reward
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