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AP Human Geography Chapter 9
Terms in this set (150)
THESE SETS ARE GENERALLY NOT REVISED SO GRAMMAR/SPELLING MISTAKES MAY BE CONSTANT AND NOT ALL INFORMATION IS GUARANTEED 100% ACCURATE
What is the Central Business District (CBD)?
major concentration of business or commerce in a city (ex. Detroit)
What is Edward Soja's Synekism?
conditions that are formed from being in the same space
How do cities reflect Synekism?
They change the space they are in for economic and political advantage (ex. Detroit tearing down old buildings to help rebound economy)
Why do we study urban geography?
1. Cities spatially
2. Various cites around the world,
3. The role people have in building,
4. the changes in a city over space and time
Do most people live urban or rural in today's world?
Urban (ex. over 50% of China and 80% of Europe)
What is urban?
the idea of built up space for the central city and suburbs
What are the characteristics of an urban area?
1. Has city and connected areas around
How many people lived urban in 3,000 BC during the period of Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, etc.
What is a city?
a grouping of people and clusters of buildings to be the center of political, economic, and cultural activities
When did modern cities begin developing?
200 years ago, although humans have been on Earth for over 100,000 years
When did agriculture begin?
10,000-12,000 years ago which some say was in the city of Catal Huyak
What is an agricultural village?
a small sized village with a small population centered around agriculture in order to survive, but producing just enough
What is the egalitarian nature?
When everybody shares things and create a sense of permanence
What was the First Agricultural Revolution?
Cities along the Fertile Crescent around 3,500 years ago
Why doesn't egalitarian nature fit into cities?
1. Generate personal wealth
2. Trade over long distances
3. Stratify classes
4. Engage in independent economic opportunities
What two things are needed for a city to develop?
1. Agricultural Surplus
2. Social Stratification
What is agricultural surplus?
the surplus production of agricultural products
What is social stratification?
defining a city into classes depending on wealth, power, production, and prestige
What is the Leadership Class/Urban Elite?
a group of decision makers that controlled the resources (especially agriculture) and lives of others in a city, usually building walls for protection
What was the First Urban Revolution?
the innovation of a city, where people engaged in economic activities (that began in 6 separate hearths, creating a case of independent inventions)
What were the six hearths of the First Urban Revolution?
1. Mesopotamia (3,500 BC)
2. Nile River Valley (3,200 BC)
3. Indus River Valley (2,200 BC)
4. Huang He and Wei River Valley (1,500 BC)
5. Mesoamerica (1,100 BC)
6. Peru (900 BC)
What was significant about Mesopotamia?
1. First urban city
2. Built walls with Mud
3. Had strong social stratification causing inequalities among buildings and people
What was significant about the Nile River Valley?
1. Integrated the urban city with irrigation
2. Didn't have walls
What was significant about the Indus River Valley?
1. Had weak social stratification causing equality among people
2. Had trade routes with Mediterranean
What was significant about the Huang He and Wei River Valley?
1. Were big in monumental buildings
- Emperor Qin Xi Huang with Great Wall of China in 200 BC
- Terracotta Warriors
What was significant about Mesoamerica?
1. Strong on religious centers
2. Had Aztec, Olmec, and Mayan civilizations
How many people were estimated to have lived in Mesopotamia and the Nile River Valley?
How did urbanization diffuse?
Spread from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean to Europe and the around the world through exploration and colonialism
What is a secondary hearth?
where the idea of a city or function is innovated
Why is Greece a secondary hearth?
Idea of city began in Mesopotamia, but Greece innovated it to make it more modern
What was the first Greek city?
Knossos on the Island of Crete in the Minoan Civilization
What are the characteristics of a Greece?
1. By 500 BC, had over 500 cities and towns
2. Over 250,00 inhabitants
3. Usual battle between Athens and Sparta
6. Laid out cities in grid system
What is the Acropolis?
A "high-city" that was suspended above the city for religious practices
What is the Agora?
A marketplace where economic, cultural, and social activities would take place, usually in the center of a city
What is a site?
The absolute location of a city
What is the situation?
The relative location of a city
What are characteristics of a Roman city?
1. Usually situated for defense, trade, or religious practices
2. Laid out cities in grid system
4. Major transportation system to interconnect whole empire
6. 1/3-2/3 of population were slaves
What is the Forum?
The center of a city that has the Acropolis, Agora, and Colosseum
What is urban morphology?
the physical layout and structure of a city
What is functional zonation?
splitting different areas of a city into zones and understanding how each zone has a different purpose and function
What happened to urbanization after the fall of the Roman Empire in 495 BC?
1. Europe entered Middle Ages and urbanization fell to very slow growth until Industrial Revolution
2. Urbanization boomed in Africa, Americas, and Asia
What was the capital city of the Aztec Civilization?
How did European exploration impact the layout of cities?
Most trade occurred at inland cities because transportation was only by caravan or walking, but now with ships, maritime/coastal cities became the centers for trade (ex. Bombay and Tokyo)
How did Europe benefit from exploration?
They gained a majority of the wealth
Why was wealth important to European states?
1. Allowed them to create powerful and influential cities
2. Allowed creation of synonymous settlements in other states
What was the Second Agricultural Revolution?
Beginning in Europe during 17th and 18th century:
1. Invention of seed drill and hybrid seed
2. Improved breeding practices
3. Improved organization for production
4. Market collaboration
5. Better Storage Capacity
What was the Second Urban Revolution?
Beginning in Europe during the 18th century:
1. Huge populations
2. Proliferation of factories and supplies
3. Expansion of transport systems
4. Construction of tenements for labor force
How did the Second Agricultural Revolution and Second Urban Revolution affect the layout of cities?
Cities that wanted to be successful needed to be near the area where the resource was found
What allowed the Second Urban Revolution to happen?
1. Second Agricultural Revolution
What is the hierarchies of revolutions?
First Agricultural Revolution
First Urban Revolution
Second Agricultural Revolution
Second Urban Revolution
How did Industrial Revolution alter cities?
1. Factories took land from private homes
2. Bad Living Conditions (urban dweller converted homes to slum and open spaces became garbage dumps)
3. Bad Health Conditions (sanitation systems failed and water systems became inadequate)
4. Horrible Working Conditions
5. Invention of steam engine
6. Railroads allowed cities not near resources to thrive
What did Karl Marx and Frederick Engels do?
Advocated for workers conditions
What is a trade area?
an adjacent area where city is dominant
What were the most important quantitative techniques to discover the rank-size rule?
2. Trade Area
What is the Rank-Size Rule?
the idea that in a model urban hierarchy, the population of a city will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy (ex. #1 city has 12 mil, #2 city has 6 mil, #3 city has 4 mil, etc.)
Why do geographers say rule is skewed?
1,. Some states have even distribution
2. Primate Cities
What is a primate city?
a non-proportional city that is always dominant and large with a special nationalist feeling, usually found in colonies (ex. Mexico City, Manila, London, and Paris)
What is the Central Place Theory?
a model developed by Walter Christaller in his book, Central Places of Southern Germany, to try and determine how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed
What are the characteristics of the Central Place Theory?
1. Region has flat area and no physical barriers
2. Soil fertility equally distributed
3. Population and buying power equally distributed
4. Uniform transportation for direct travel along area
5. From any distance a good or service could be directly sold to any area
What does he add about a central place?
They have a complimentary region where a small city has a monopoly on a certain product
Why is the central place theory modeled by hexagons and not circles?
Circles would cause weird shapes
What did the central place theory prove?
1. Large cities would have more distance between each other than small villages and towns
2. There is a hierarchy of urban places
3. That the distribution of cities was dependent on trade areas, population size, and distance
What is the hierarchy in the hexagonal highlands?`
From Greatest to Least:
City → Town → Village → Hamlet
What has caused the central place theory to lose interest today?
2. Population increase
3. Interstate systems
What is the Sun-Belt Phenomena?
movement of millions from North to Southern United States due to increase of government spending in this area and production of goods leading to better economy
Why were city models created?
1. To examine functional zonation
2. To examine urban morphology
3. To study, map, and chart cities
4. To see history and similar cultural landscapes among cities
What is a zone?
the description of the purpose of a city (ex. Industrial zone, residential zone, etc.)
What is a central city?
urban area that isn't suburban (usually older city region of a city)
What is a suburb?
an outlying and functional part of a city that is usually adjacent to the central city (usually residential but could have other uses)
What is suburbanization?
the process of lands that were outside of the urban environment becoming urbanized so city people can move outwards
How do suburbs compete with the central cities?
2. Company Headquarters
How many Americans live in suburban cities today?
50% in Suburbs, 30% in Urban, 20% in Rural
What is Ernest Burgess' Concentric Model of 1920?
a model that defines a city into five zones by their function as the city grew and the outside areas became zones. He states that as a city grew, the inside zones would build up the outer zones, making the zones larger. Everything revolved around the CBD.
What is Herbert Hoyt's Sector Model of 1930?
a model that stated a city's zones grew outward from the CBD creating a pie shape.
What is Edward Ullman and Chauncey Harris' Multiple Nuclei Model of 1945?
a model that states although a CBD remained the uptime factor of a cities' activities, independent suburbs could form their own nuclei of little towns that would be synonymous to the CBD due to an increase in transportation and automobiles
What are edge cities?
suburban towns that became independent from central city and other suburban areas, usually near a major freeway (Ex. Tyson's Corner, Virginia from D.C and Irvine, California from LA)
What are colonial cities?
cities that were modeled after European and Western styles
What are indigenous cities?
cities that remained independent from globalization and Western cities
What are megacities?
primate cities in developing countries that have a large population, a vast territorial extent, rapid immigration, and strained/adequate infrastructure (ex. Mumbai has more population than Australia, Sao Paulo covers more land than Belgium, Kinshasa is fastest growing city in Africa, Jakarta is largest city without a subway)
What is the Griffin-Ford Model?
a model by Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford in the 1980's that shows how the traditional elements of South American culture blends with forces of globalization and the urban scene creating radial sectors and concentric zones
What are the characteristics of the Griffin-Ford Model?
1. The CBD is split into a market sector
2. A commercial spine diverges from the CBD outwards
3. Mall is formed at the end of the spine acting as an edge city
4. Zone of Maturity holds middle-class housing
5. Zone of In Situ Accretion holds transition housing from high/middle-class to low-class
6. Periférico holds low-income housing from both new immigrants and long-term dwellers
7. Industrial Park holds ongoing actives of the city
8. Gentrification zone is where historic buildings are preserved
What is the disamenity sector?
the most poorest neighborhoods of a city, zoned with favelas or slums, that is usually not connected to city services and therefore is controlled by gangs or drug lords
What are Shantytowns?
unplanned developments of crude shelters built with cardboard, iron, and other scrap materials around a city
What did Larry Ford add to the model in 1996?
1. The Periférico
2. The division of CBD into market
3. The mall zone
4. Left space for suburb industrial parks
What region has the fastest growing cities?
What are the 3 CBD's in the African City Model and what are their functions/characteristics?
1. Colonial- from the former colony and has vertical development
2. Traditional- with traditional architecture and movements
3. Market Zone- an open-air and informal commerce centers (usually at storefronts or in streets)
What are the characteristics of the African City Model?
1. Three CBDs
2. Ethnic Neighborhoods around CBD
3. Mining areas overlapping with ethnic neighborhood zone because of former mining businesses
What is the McGee Model?
a model by T.G McGee in 1967 that expressed medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia and found similar land-patterns
What are the characteristics of the McGee Model?
1. Center of town created by port and commercial zone
2. No CBD but has aspects of CBD
3. Market-Gardening Zone where gardening occurs
4. Industrial Estate where industries boom outside the realm of the city
What are the aspects of the CBD found in Southeast Asian cities and what are their functions?
1. Government Zone- where legislative activities occur
2. Western Commercial Zone- considered the independent CBD
3. Alien Commercial Zone- zone dominated by Chinese merchants attached to their businesses
4. Mixed-Land Use Zones- zone where land is used for multiple economic activities
What is the main difference between the McGee Model and the Griffin-Ford Model?
The size of middle-class:
McGee Model- One large group of middle-class that lied together in one zone
Griffin-Ford Model: pockets of middle-class that are located in multiple zones around the city
What are zoning laws?
when cities define areas of a city and designate what can be developed in these zones allowing the government to "control" the layout of a city
What is the only US city without zoning laws?
How can you tell the difference between a multi-family area and single-family area?
1. Particular style of construction and building material (especially distance between houses)
2. Nature/vegetation around houses
3. Distance between houses and streets
4. Amount of space devoted to automobile storage
Do Periphery have a middle-class?
No, because strong difference between the "haves" and "have-nots" with very little room in between
How did migrants affect the living conditions of a city?
1. Most migrants piled in with each other in old houses around the outside of the city
2. Shantytowns increased overnight
What does a periphery city usually lack?
Zoning Laws, so disregularities of functions and difference between wealthy and poor were easy to see, unless an outcry for zoning laws or land value increased (ex. Cairo)
How can goals of a city be changed?
1. Remaking the goals
2. Reinventing neighborhoods
3. Changing layouts to reflect current goals
What was redlining during Segregation in America?
when financial lenders or relaters would define certain cities as risky or unsafe (usually black areas) and therefore would refuse loans or purchasing power to people in the area causing areas to become run-down
What was Blockbusting during Segregation in America?
realtors would kick out white residents of a neighborhood in order to sell their homes by saying the neighborhood was going downhill, so that they could have black people move in
What is a white flight?
movement of whites from inner city and adjacent neighborhoods to outer suburbs causing turn over of houses and low-pirced properties allowing relaters to profit
Why was the white flight and urge to move to the suburbs bad for the government?
They lost taxes, so began to clean up cities in order to urge people back
What is commercialization?
making an area attractive to residents and tourists (ex. Miami, NYC, and Baltimore)
Why did commercialization sometimes not work reinvigorate a city?
A city needed a permeant population to survive, and this didn't always happen because of commercialization
What is gentrification?
the rehabilitation of houses in older neighborhoods that began in areas such as San Francisco and Chicago
What do gentrification show about American society?
It showed an increase in single people because easier to live along and within walking distance of work opposed to int he suburbs
What negative effect did gentrification cause?
An increase in homeless people, because property/land value taxes increased, causing an increase in goods and services in the areas surrounding
Does gentrification only happen in cities?
No, also happens in suburbs
What are tear downs?
homes meant for suburban demolition
What are McMansions?
After teardowns, supersize houses that are developed with similar looks to the previous house and usually stretches past property line
What are the effects of gentrification in the suburbs?
1. Changes landscape
2. Increases average housing values and tax revenue,
3. Increase of average household income of a suburb
What two cities are good examples for suburban gentrification?
1. Greenwhich, Connecticut
2. Hinsdale, Illinois
What is urban sprawl?
beginning with the automobile era, the large and unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large areas of land with little concern for urban planning
How is urban sprawl allowed?
1. Destruction of farmland
2. Widening or building of roads
2. Creation of strip malls
4. Monopolizing of housing developments
Does urban sprawl have direct correlation to population increase?
No, although the Sun Belt and Western cities seeing most population increase have highest levels of urban sprawl, some cities such as Detroit and Pittsburgh with lowering populations have increase in urban sprawl too
What is new-urbanism?
In 1993, a group of architects, urban planners, and developers created the Congress for New Urbanism that belied in: development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with diversity of housing and jobs in order to decrease and regulate urban sprawl (ex. Celebration, FL in 1994)
What did the new-urbanists want to create within their new communities?
A sense of community and a sense of place
What do critics express about new-urbanism?
1. Just redefining and privatizing space to people who can afford to live in these communities
2. Creates a mythical community for people that can afford it
3. Increases racial and social segregation by privatizing social interactions
What are gated communities?
Beginning in 1980's, fenced neighborhoods with controlled access gates for people and automobiles: in order to create a space of safety in an uncertain urban world with security cameras and security forces (private security) and to maintain or increase housing values by regulating neighborhood bylaws to make places uniformed or by creating a sense of safety
How many Americans live in gated communities as of 2001?
6% or 16 millon
How do gated community differ in the periphery?
1. Used to isolate wealthy from poor areas with crime
2. Used to maintain poor areas and strengthen rich areas
(ex. Africa and and Latin America)
How are gated communities different in Asia?
1. Used to sperate socioeconomic groups
2. 5-10 times more populated
What did 9/11 change about gated communities?
1. Became more common in North America and Europe
2. Became occupied by both wealthy and middle-class people
3. Encouraged cities to tear down high-rises and create defensed housing
Why do urban planners call for more gated communities for middle-class and low-income class?
Could isolate crime and make networking hard allowing for decrease in crime rates and better living (ex. Five Oaks, Ohio)
How did most ethnic neighborhoods develop in Europe?
Migration from former colonies, global periphery, or random states
How do European cities differ from American cities?
2. More restrained/controlled by government
3. Have governmental controlled social relations
4. More compact and densely populated
5. More walkable
6. Have a historic center relating to major events in state's history opposed to skyscrapers
7. Most housing in Zone of Transition or bottom floors of work places
8. Ethnicities stick together through religious organizations, not residential segregation
How have migrants effected the layout of a city?
1. Caused locals to move outward because didn't want to be living near immigrants
2. Created policy of governments controlling public housing zones (ex. Brussels with Turks and Moroccans)
What are the characteristics of ethnic neighborhoods in Semi-Peripheral and Peripheral states?
1. Usually slums of Shantytowns
2. Unregulated by government
3. Fall within central city
4. Most houses built by migrants in dangerous areas
6. Locals have control over immigrants (especially through rent)
7. Culturally delineated (ex. Kibera in Nigeria)
How do colonies affect the layout of ethnic neighborhoods in a city?
1. Usually stay in the same area even after colonial power leaves (ex. Mombasa in Kenya)
2. New migrants forced to struggle for land and jobs with current ethnic areas
How are new migrants allowed to survive in cities with no work and horrible conditions?
What is the informal economy?
the economy that isn't taxed or counted as the GNI of a state
(ex. cleaning jobs)
Why do governments fear the informal economy?
Sometimes it can produce more revenue and cause more power in the hands of the poor
What is special about Mumbai?
It reflects a city that once under the influence of a colonial power is becoming a major global city:
Has functional zone with demarcated and modern European businesses allowing foreign economic linkage and another zone with Native Towns (bazaars and public trading among locals) allowing regional monopolies
How are colonial cities becoming large global cities?
By keeping foreign presence in their states allowing connection with global economy, while maintaining individual businesses
What is globalization?
a set of processes and outcomes that occur on the global scale, not accounting for state boundaries
What are world cities?
cities that function in the global scale out of reach of the state as service centers for the world economy, creating the most impactful economic outcome for a state
What is a node?
a place where action and interaction occurs
What are the top three world cities on the hierarchy?
NYC, Tokyo, and London, and all others following are based on perspective
How did Beaverstock and Taylor create the hierarchy after this?
They accounted for how much a world city produced producers goods that affected globalization (ex. banking, law. etc.)
They said there were 10 Alpha cities, 10 Beta cities, and 35 Gamma cities
What are the Alpha cities?
1. London, UK
2. Paris, France
3. NYC, USA
4. Tokyo, Japan
5. Chicago, USA
6. Frankfurt, Germany
7. Hong Kong, China
8. LA, USA
9. Milan, Italy
10. Singapore, Singapore
How are both London and Paris Alpha world cities when they are so close to each other?
Because of what they produce to the world and their state
What two states don't have a primate city because they have so many world cities?
USA and Germany
What are spaces of consumption?
an area of a city produced by the media corporations to encourage people to consume their products: making a city a product to globalization
Why do media corporations want to make places spaces of consumption?
To increase awareness of their products, in order to have more profit (ex. Disney)
How is Times Square a space of consumption?
Since its renovation from the 1980's, media corporations have enhanced it with themed restaurants, huge billboards, etc. to create awareness of their product
How is Potsdamer Platz in Germany a space of consumption?
Since the end of WWII and collapse of the Berlin Wall along with the deal to sell Sony half the city and Daimler-Benz the other half, both of those corporations have created toponyms and huge advertising galleries within the city
How did hunters and gathers vary from the urban civilization?
They were migratory and had to move to find food which was relatively small opposed to maintaining in one area with a surplus of food
What is best example for the layout of Roman cities?
Pompeii and Herculanean
What cities held the major steel industries within the US?
1. Youngstown, OH
2. Birmingham, AL
3. Pittsburgh, PA
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