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AP Human Geography Chapter 1
Information from Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture by Erin H. Fouberg, Alexander B. Murphy, and H.J Blij http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-EHEP002089.html
Terms in this set (127)
THESE SETS ARE GENERALLY NOT REVISED SO GRAMMAR/SPELLING MISTAKES MAY BE CONSTANT AND NOT ALL INFORMATION IS GUARANTEED 100% ACCURATE
What percent of the world is malnourished?
1 out of 7 (about 1 billion)
What makes up the majority of the 1/7th?
Women and Children
What region is mostly malnourished?
Why do wealthier countries benefit more when it comes to malnourishment?
They can afford to buy more food than the poorer countries
Does having a large amount of arable land mean you have the least amount of malnourished people?
No, because most countries with high amounts of arable land export their goods to other countries for profit
What is geographic fieldwork?
When geographers physically go to places to see what people are doing, observe people's reactions, and develop maps to help observe where they are.
What are human geographers?
People that study other people and places
What is Human Geography?
1. How people make places
2. How we organize space and society
3. How we interact with each other
4. How we understand ourselves and others in localities, regions, and the world
How has technology advanced communication and transportation?
People can now travel places faster than ever before
What is the goal of human geography?
To understand and explain the diversity of people and places (Spatial Distribution)
What is Globalization?
Processes that increase interactions, deepen relationships, and accelerate interdependence across borders
What do discussions of globalization usually compare it to?
Why do geographers use a "scale"?
To compare individual, local, regional, national, and global interrelationships, because events have different effects in each scale.
Where do globalizing processes happen?
What do processes at the individual, local, regional, and national scales do?
Change human geography and shape globalization
What is Physical Geography?
A part of geography that studies the structure, process, and location, of the natural environment
What is Spatial?
The arrangement of places and phenomena (They're lay out, organization, and how arrangements appear on Earth's landscape)
What is Spatial Distribution?
How things are distributed across space
What are Patterns?
Relationships between places and things
What is Medical Geography?
Mapping the distribution of a disease
What is Cholera?
A disease that causes fatal diarrhea and dehydration
When did it start?
Where did it start?
How did Dr. Snow solve Cholera in the Soho district of England?
He mapped out the street pumps, and noticed that most people affected were around the Broad Street pump. He asked the officials to turn off the pump, and the disease was practically gone
How do you receive Cholera?
By eating food, or drinking water with contaminated bacteria
How are you now advised to fight Cholera?
1. Clean/Boil water
2. Use salts
3. Take antibiotics
What is Spatial Perspective?
Observing variations of geography across space
When did the National Geographic Society introduce the five themes?
What is location?
The geographical position of people and things and how it affects what happens and why things happen
What is location theory?
An attempt to explain the locational pattern of economic activity and how it interrelates with other economies
What is Human-Environment Interaction?
The relationship between humans and the physical world
What are Regions?
Areas that have similar features
What is a Place?
Anywhere that has a unique physical and/or human characteristic
What is sense of a place?
Having a special meaning or emotion, remembering important events, or adding a certain character to a place (Homy)
What are perceptions of places?
An idea that we set for a place to be like because of a book, movie, etc. (What OTHERS create our mind to perceive)
What is movement?
The mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the world
What is Spatial Interaction?
The interaction between distances, accessibility, and connectivity
What are distances?
The measured physical space between two places
What is accessibility?
How easy it is to reach one place to another
What is connectivity?
The amount of linkage between locations in a network
What are the five themes?
What is landscape?
Material character, natural features, human structures, and tangible uniqueness of a place
What is Cultural Landscape?
The human activity on a landscape
Where is cultural landscape found?
What is sequence occupance?
When the cultural technologies and traditions on a landscape pass down or influence the culture that arrives there
How does cultural landscape present different cultures?
It allows us to see many different values, customs, practices, etc.
When do the biggest changes happen to a cultural landscape?
Generally after a catastrophe such as a war, invention, depression, etc.
What is cartography?
Making and creating maps
What are reference maps?
They show locations and geographic features
Ex. Map of United States
What are thematic maps?
They show stories or events
Ex. Map of African American Population
What are absolute locations?
Precise plotting usually by using latitude and longitude lines
What is the Global Positioning System (GPS)?
A satellite based locater that allows us to find absolute locations easier
What is geocoaching?
People that travel with their GPS to find treasures
What is Relative location?
Describes a place in relation to another feature
Is absolute or relative location used more in everyday life?
What differs between absolute and relative location?
1. Absolute is precise while relative doesn't have to be
2. Relative can change while absolute usually doesn't
What are mental maps?
Maps we create in our minds of places we have been or hope to go
What are activity spaces?
Places were we conduct everyday activities which allows us to have a better mental map
What historically differs past mental maps to present mental maps?
Nomadic people tended to use mental maps for food and shelter, while we use it to navigate in cities
How do mental maps differ between men and women?
Women tend to use landmarks, and men tend to use paths
What is Terra Incognita?
Unknown and unreachable lands
What is remote sensing?
Conducting research on earth's environment from far away
What is great about remote sensing?
It comes almost simultaneously
What makes Google Earth great?
We can see the physical and human features of countries that prohibit foreign access and foreign aid.
What are Geographic Information Systems (GIS)?
Systems that are used to compare spatial data and analyze data by; digital representations of the environment, combining layers of spatial data, and creating maps with clear patterns and processes
How did Kolivras use GIS?
He reviewed Dr. Snow's work and then used the new technology to discover that Dengue fever could potentially arrive in Hawaii
What is Geographic Information Science (GISci)?
Studying the development and geospatial concerns to examine patterns and processes
What are the two meanings for scale?
1. Distance on map compared to distance on Earth
2. Spatial extent of something
What are the benefits of studying with scales?
We can see how phenomenons affect a larger scale, and then how they affect all the smaller scales, or vice versa
What does it mean to rescale?
It means you change your scale when reviewing a subject
Ex. change from national scale to regional scale
What is jump scaling?
When you go from a smaller scale and jump to the global scale
What is the criteria for a region?
1. Formal (Physical or Cultural)
What is a formal region?
A region that has one of the criteria similar to another region
What is a functional region?
A region where unique activities or interactions are held between all the people
Ex. Chicago and surrounding suburbs
What do functional regions have in common?
What are perceptual regions?
A region that is developed by a person's perceptions (YOU make the perception)
Why are regions useful?
They are a form of spatial classification where we can take large amounts of information and simplify it to make it comprehensible
What is culture?
A way of life that has unique values, beliefs, and physical traits
What is a culture trait?
A single attribute to a culture
What is a culture complex?
When a certain idea or trait is used by many cultures but for different reasons
What is a cultural hearth?
Where cultural traits form and then diffuse
What is an independent invention?
When a cultural hearth is developed somewhere without influence from the main hearth
What is cultural diffusion?
When ideas, people, or goods move across a space
What is Time-Distance Decay?
When a combination of time and distance from hearth causes an idea or innovation to lose popularity
What are Cultural Barriers?
Innovations, ideas, or practices that the general population doesn't accept a characteristic for their culture
What is Expansion Diffusion?
When an idea or invention that starts in hearth remains strong as it spreads to other places
What are the two broad categories of diffusion?
Expansion Diffusion and Relocation Diffusion
What is Contagious Diffusion?
When almost all of the areas near the innovation or idea are affected
What is a good example of contagious diffusion?
What is hierarchical diffusion?
When an idea or invention diffuses by going to a primary group, then a secondary group, etc.
What is stimulus diffusion?
When a cultural trait is diffused, but first has to have adapt
What is relocation diffusion?
When people take an idea or invention and physically brings it somewhere else
What are geographic concepts?
Ways of seeing the world, that are used by geographers to answer questions (location, places, diffusion, etc.)
How does a geographer do geographic research?
1. Thinks of a question with a spatial or landscape component
2. Chooses the scales of analysis
3. Applies 1 or more geographic concepts
What tools do geographers use?
Fieldwork, remote sensing, GIS, GPS, and qualitative techniques
What is environmental determinism?
Human behavior is strongly affected and/or determined by the physical environment
What is possibilism?
It states that cultural development is dependent on human decisions, not the environment
What is cultural ecology?
The study of how culture adapts and alters the environment
What is political ecology?
The study of how environmental issues are caused by political and economic statuses
What is human geography like today?
1. Making sense of spatial organization of humans on Earth's surface
2. Discovering the character of places and regions created by people
3. Relationships between humans and the physical environment
What are the sub disciplines?
1. Political Geography
2. Economic Geography
3. Urban Geography
4. Population Geography
5. Cultural Geography
What does cultural geography entail?
Traits like religion, language, and ethnicity
What is the market for the world called?
The Global Market or The Global System
What are Core states?
States that are highly developed
What are characteristics of Core states?
1. Strong political and economical power
2. High Literacy Rate
3. CBR is medium to low
4. Median death rates
5. Modern infrastructure
6. Good sanitation
What are Peripheral states?
States that are underdeveloped
What are characteristics of peripheral states?
1. Weak economical and political power
2. Low life expectancy
3. Low literacy (especially females), Varies in men
4. High CBR
5. High CDR
What are Semi-Peripheral states?
States that are in the middle ground, meaning they share characteristics of both
What is outsourcing?
A business that relocates within a country
What is offshoring?
Moving a business to another country
What is a synonym for a country?
Is a state a nation?
What are examples of core areas?
North America, Europe, Australia, South Korea, Japan, Greenland, and Russia (very low)
What are examples of semi-peripheral areas?
South America, Central America, South Africa, Saharan Africa, Middle East
What are examples of peripheral areas?
Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa,
What are the most common type of thematic maps?
What is the main difference between expansion diffusion and relocation diffusion?
Expansion = Ideas, Innovations, etc,
Relocation = PEOPLE
What is the best example for sequence occupance?
What is the difference between perceptual region, and perception of place?
Perceptual Region is what YOU perceive a specific place to be
Perception of Place is what OTHERS (Social Media, Friends, etc.) lead you to perceive a region to be
If the larger the geographic area then....
The smaller the scale
If the smaller the geographic area then...
The larger the scale
What does Hierarchal Diffusion depend on?
What is the best example?
Hearth- Fashion show in Milan
1st- Will go to NYC, Paris, London
2nd- High end Boutiques/Stores, LA, Miami, Monaco
3rd- Target, Walmart,
What is a good example of Relocation Diffusion?
Chinatown in NYC or San Francisco
What can Relocation Diffusion be compared to?
Migration / Immigration / Emigration
What is the Global-Local Continuum?
What happens at the global scale directly affects what happens at the local scale, or vice versa
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Human Geography Chapter 6
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AP Human Geography Chapter 3
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