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Family Violence Chap 1-6
Terms in this set (102)
may be of non traditional view
an act carried out with the intention of, or an act perceived as having the intention of, physically hurting another person
idealized societal view of the family
safe place, caring
Why is commonality of family violence difficult to assess?
Where are women and children most likely to be victimized?
in their own homes
What is the single greatest determinant of an individual's level of violence outside of the home?
Interactions within the family
Who is most likely to engage in violence both in childhood and adulthood?
children who are abused or witness violence
What form of maltreatment is most common in reports?
In 2007, how many reports were made of child maltreatment?
3.5 million (10.6 per 1,000)
According to survey, what percentage of adult women reported being assaulted by adult caregivers as children?
According to survey, what percentage of adult men reported being assaulted by adult caregivers as children?
Who is most likely to conduct rape?
an intimate (66%)
What percentage of women reported IPV in 2000?
What percentage of men reported IPV in 2000?
What preceded 73% of homicide-suicide deaths?
What are 5 structural factors that contribute to family violence?
amount of time spent together, power differentials, inability to dissolve relationships, authorities, privacy
What are some ways family is idealized?
Parental rights supersede children's rights
Parents can and should have control over the development of their children
Family members will act in the best interest of children and elderly parents who are incapable of caring for themselves
Families rooted in traditional cultures are strong families, despite having values and customs that justify violence
Families have the right to privacy and autonomy
way in which acceptance, encouragement, and glorification of violence is perpetuated in families
what are some examples of spillover effect?
advertising, video games, social learning theory
what are some ways violence is socially accepted?
search for "perfect victims", status quo comfortability
cultural factors to social acceptance of violence?
honorable, media potrayal, familial approval, male dominance
individual factors of family violence
mental illness, jealousy, anger, attachment bonds
In what ways has the view of violence changed in America?
America has always been violent; however, modern technology and mass media have personalized the view of violence
who are some of the stakeholders in family violence?
what are some areas of protection that are needed for children in terms of human rights?
property rights and custodial rights
True or False: There is a universal law regarding domestic violence
societal reactions shape social problems
Interest groups help to change social conditions into social problems by actively engaging in the process of raising awareness
What are some examples of claims-making?
Planned Parenthood, the circus
How does claims-making garner change?
winners define the nature and facts of social problems
what was the most frequently occurring crime in all of Europe until about 1800?
when did child protection laws begin in the US and how has it developed over time?
1900s; Over time, the value we place on children has risen
What are some ways in which child protection laws are enforced?
child labor laws, juvi court, mandatory education requirements
How were children viewed in most societies before protection laws?
children were regarded as the property of their parents, who were allowed to treat their property as they saw fit
Children were viewed as a burden or economic disadvantage
House of Refuge Movement
(1800s) The state has a right and responsibility to protect those who cannot protect themselves
The rise of state-supported institutions
Documented as the first attempt to intervene in neglect and abuse cases
Mary Ellen Wilson
First child abuse court case
Ongoing physical abuse
Protected under animal abuse laws
The Battered Child Syndrome
Importance of physicians reporting observed cases of abuse
Child Abuse Prevention & Treatment Act (1974)
Dr. Henry Kempe
first described Battered Child Syndrome in the 1960's
North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) (1978)
Supports "the rights of all people to engage in consensual relations, and opposes laws which destroy loving relationships merely on the age of participants"
What is most forgotten form of maltreatment? why?
neglect and psychological maltreatment; overlooked due to the lack of observable harm
Chiswick Women's Aid (1971)
The first battered women's shelter to gain widespread public attention
This European movement aided the American movement through the National Organization for Women
True or False: Historically, rape laws have pertained only to sexual assault outside of marriage
Marital exemption law (England, 1700's)
meant that marriage equaled consent
True or False: Throughout the 19th century, criminal charges began to punish husbands for raping wives
False; Throughout the 19th century, no criminal charges were brought against any husband for raping his wife
the year that made rape illegal in all 50 states
True or False: Research has found that sexual assault by an acquaintance is far more likely to occur than violent sexual assault by a stranger
Visual or physical proximity; nonconsensual communication; verbal, written, or implied threats; or a combination thereof that would cause fear in a reasonable person
True or false: Stalking is not a criminal offense in all 50 states
False: Though it was Largely ignored until the 1990's, it is a Criminal offense today in all 50 states
Adult protective services programs
established in 1974
It wasn't until the 1980's that elder abuse began appearing in research studies
True or False: Research findings argue that men are violent to their wives more often than women are violent toward their husbands
False; Some research findings argue that women are violent toward their husbands as often as men are violent toward their wives
refers to situations in which one or both adult partners are abusive not only toward the other, but also toward a child within the same family
True or False: Because research found significant links between child maltreatment and partner abuse and scholars urged that the two be addressed jointly, the two issues are now addressed together in court of law in all 50 states
False; the two issues are largely still addressed individually
What are negative consequences of female survivors of IPV in relation to co-occurrence?
In some cases, a female survivor of IPV will be arrested and charged with child neglect
What are some international and understudied groups in family violence?
LGBTQ+, Military Personnel
True or False: rates of violence in LGBT are virtually same as heterosexual relationships in both rates of occurrence and form of violence
False; virtually the same as in heterosexual relationships, but the forms of violence often vary
-substantially more injuries
-homicides more brutal
what are some costs that increase in association with family violence?
Mental health treatment
what are some costs that decrease in association with family violence?
10 common myths about family violence (If Family Only Abused Battered Women, Some Minor Alcohol "just happens")
If he ever laid a hand on me, I would leave
Family violence is uncommon
Abused children always become abusive partners or parents
Battered women "ask for it"
Women who claim date rape are :lying," "deserve what they got," or were "asking for it"
Some people cannot be raped, and anyway, coercive sexual contact is not damaging
Minor acts of violence are always trivial and inconsequential
Family violence sometimes "just happens"
concerns the emotional changes that take place in an individual as the result of an experience
example of classical conditioning
A woman who is frequently abused by her intoxicated partner may come to fear his drunken arrival (fear)
entails the individual's understanding of the relationship between his/her actions and their consequences
example of operant conditioning
, individuals learn that pressing the brakes will slow and stop the car,
encompasses classically conditioned fear and operantly conditioned escape or avoidance
example of avoidance conditioning
A bullied child, for example, may avoid going to school
The assumption that family violence is a product of interactions between individuals in a specific relationship
Places an equal portion of blame on victims, which fails to hold perpetrators entirely responsible
Interpersonal Interaction Theory
Similar to systems theory, but without the victim-blaming component or the equally shared responsibility component
Takes into account issues such as anger and attachment needs
Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS1)
The most widely used measure in family violence research
Three sub scales
Negotiation; psychological aggression; physical assault
Women are as violent, interpersonally, as men
Revised Conflict tactics Scale (CTS2)
Addressed the weaknesses of CTS1
Improvements in wording, terminology, and degrees of severity
Negotiation; psychological aggression; physical assault; sexual coercion; injury
three fundamental needs of children
Perceived support from mothers
Nonexposure to family conflict
Early affection from mothers
what are some forms of neglect?
physical, educational, developmental, emotional
subtypes of neglect
healthcare, personal hygiene, nutritional, household safety, sanitation, inadequate shelter, abandonment, supervisory, educational, emotional, fostering delinquency, medical
what is the most frequently reported and most substantiated form of child maltreatment over the past 20 years?
Adverse Childhood Experience; Conducted by Kaiser-Permanente in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1995-1997
Measures ten areas of childhood dysfunction
describe the ACE pyramid
the more adverse experiences, the lower your life expectancy;
Adverse Childhood Experiences
Social Emotional and Cog Impairement
Adoption of Health risk behaviors
Disease, disability, and social problems,
True or False: Child neglect in the first two years of life may be a more important precursor of childhood aggression than later neglect or physical abuse at any age
What is the majority of age of neglected children?
True or false: the severity of neglect increases with age
false: severity decreases with age
True or false: neglect is evenly distributed among gender
true; females slightly higher
58% of children physically neglected by biological parent were
53% children physically neglected by nonbiological parent were
what racial entity is more likely to experience medical neglect?
what group more likely to experience emotional neglect?
what role do women play in child neglect?
Women account for higher proportion of child neglect investigations (86%) and are more likely to be labeled as neglectful
what characteristic do biological parents have in relation to neglect?
92% of neglect perpetrators are biological parents
what characteristic do unemployed parents have in relation to neglect?
Unemployed parents are more likely to perpetrate neglect
what role does low SES play in neglect?
Children of low socioeconomic status are more likely to be neglected
what are some risk factors of neglect?
low educational achievement
what is the least reported and least substantiated child maltreatment?
What is the strongest predictor of long-term impacts on psychological functioning?
True or false: psychological maltreatment increases with age
what is the peak age for psychological maltreatment?
4-11 years old
what gender is most likely to experience psychological maltreatment?
what are some individual risk factors for maltreatment?
children under age of 4
what are some family risk factors for maltreatment?
Family disorganization and/or family violence
Parenting stress and/or poor parent/child relations
what are some family risk factors for maltreatment?
Concentrated neighborhood disadvantage
what are 4 significant predictors of service drop-outs?
Lack of satisfactory social support
Low acceptance of the child
Older maternal age
Older child age
What is the harm standard that recognizes children as CPA victims ?
observable injuries that last 48 hours
What is the endangerment standard that recognizes children as CPA victims ?
if they are deemed to be substantially at risk for injury
Following neglect, what is the most deadly form of child maltreatment? What gender is more likely to be murdered?
What are some long term effects of CPA?
crim and violent behavior in adulthood, dating and marital violence, substance abuse, socioemotional difficulties,
true or false: rates of CPA decline with age
false; Unlike with other forms of maltreatment, rates of CPA do not decline with age
race at greatest risk of CPA