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Terms in this set (61)
expansion, economics or cultural imperialism, forcing will
Reason for U.S. Imperialism
Manifest Destiny on a Global Scale
Nationalism- looking for new markets
Roots of Imperialism
>John Winthrop's "City Upon A Hill"
>Turner Thesis- Frederick Turner worried because no more frontier to settle after Western
>Racist Superiority- WE ARE AMERICANS
>Alfred T. Mahan- navy needs ports and fueling stations
reasons in newspapers at this time of why the us should annex hawaii
>barbarous country, duty to help those who cannot govern themselves
>shall we let England take it and humiliate ourselves?
>total exports of mostly sugar crops by lazy natives were more than 900,000,000
>acquisition of Hawaiian island would at once give strength to the naval force of this government in the event of a naval war between the us and france england or germany (PEARL HARBOR)
Frederick Jackson Turner
In 1893, he reminded Americans that the continent had now been settled and Americans required a new frontier if democracy were to survive. He read his essay "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Alfred Thayer Mahan
One of the first presidents of Congress-established Naval War College in Newport, RI to train the officer corps. Congress appropriated funds to build up American seapower, wishing to enforce treaties and protect overseas investments. He prescribed an imperialist strategy based on command of the seas. His book, "The Influence of Sea Power upon American History, 1660-1873" helped to define American foreign policy at the time. Insisted that international strength rested not only on open markets but on the control of colonies. He advocated the annexation of based in the Caribbean and the Pacific to enhance the navy's ability to threaten or wage warfare >> Hawaii (annexation on July 7, 1898)
>American Economic-Missionaries arrive
>Involved in Sugar and Pineapple Plantations ex: Sanford Dole
>Hundreds of thousands of dollars in profits
>When missionaries get there and see opportunity for money, they take it. Therefore now want a role in government because do not want the government to make a law that would not favor business owners there.
Bayonet Constitution 1887
>Took power away from Monarchy of Hawaii in 1887, still exists but weaker
>Gave power to Americans and Europeans
>Forced on weak King David Kalakaua
>Leaves to his sister Lili
>McKinley Tariff (not pres yet but puts this in so us doesnt need to pay tariff on imported goods in hawaii) hurt sugar growers in Hawaii leading to calls for Hawaii to become part of the USA
>the us had allowed hawaii tariff free acess to american markets. then when mckinely tariff was imposted, hawainn exports diminished
>the white minority overthrew the government and eventually the us annexed hawaii. japan was outraged, leads to resentment in ww2
>At the same time, King David was replaced by Queen Lili
>She tried to reclaim the power of the monarchy
>"Hawaii for the Hawaiians" her slogan exhibiting how she wanted to restore the power to the Hawaiian monarchy
During his 1896 campaign, William McKinley firmly committed himself to the principle of economic expansion. His greatest ambition was to achieve American supremacy in world markets. As president, he not only reached out for markets but took his nation into war.
>Needing an alliance with the USA to eliminate tariff and fearing Lilioukalani's plans and power....
>Local businessmen overthrow the Queen and government at Iolani
>Establish a Provisional Government
New ruler after overthrow of a weak king, Kalakaua. She struck back by issuing a constitution granting her more discretionary power. She was deposed, and a new provisional government was installed and Hawaii was proclaimed an American protectorate (a territory protected and partly controlled by the US). President Cleveland refused to consider annexation, but five years later McKinley affirmed a joint congressional resolution under which Hawaii would become an American territory in 1900.
Cleveland's Response: 1891
>President Cleveland sends in Marines and investigates
>Finds in favor of Queen, but refuses to reinstate her when she tells him she will be beheading all who revolted against her (AMERICAN businessmen/treasoners)
Annexation of Hawaii
Hawaii in limbo until...
>Imperialist William McKinley enters White House in 1897
>1898 Hawaii is annexed by USA
Roots of the Spanish American War
>Spanish control Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines
>US sets sight on Spain's holdings for U.S. SUGAR investments
>1895 Jose Marti struggles for Cuban Independence
>Spends time in NYC campaigning for independence/George Washington of Cuba
>Yellow Journalism- whip up public opinion
nationalist leader who declared that "Cuba must be free from Spain and the US" Cubans rallied under his leadership until Spanish troops ambushed and killed Marti in May 1895. Marti's martyrdom fueled the flames of rebellion.
Many Americans invoking the legacy of their own war for independence supported the movement for Cuba Libre. Wanted Cuba to be free from Spain's treatment of captured insurrectionists.
Marti fights for independence!
>He unites the Cubans in a war of independence against Spain
>Disrupts sugar crops so American interest develops
>Killed in first battle...bummer.
Politicians Debate U.S. Involvement
>McKinley reluctant to go to war (memories of Civil War)
>T.R. Sec. of Navy promotes war as "highest form of human achievement"
>Ironically, T.R. will win the Nobel Peace Prize when President!
Causes of U.S. Involvement: 1898
>"The Butcher" General Weyler- put cubans in concentration camps to stop their guerrilla warfare uprising
>De Lome Letter (Weak/Coward)
>U.S.S. Maine (266 Dead)
The De Lome Letter
Letter from a Spanish foreign minister in which he spoke of US President William McKinley as weak!
>Letter called McKinley a coward and angered not only him but the American public.
Hearst; Impatient public and press ran banner headlines charging a Spanish controversy over USS Maine explosion.
>promotes War (Cuba)
William Randolph Hearst
>editor of the new york journal
>competed with Pulitzer to get more readers
>comes along against American brutality in Phillipines
>bought his own newspaper the NEW YORK WORLD
McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war against Spain for Cuban independence. Senate barely passed the war resolution by a vote of 42-35 and inclusion of Republican senator Henry Teller's (of Colorado) amendment. disclaimed "any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island, except for the pacification thereof"
>Assures Cubans of their own independence following the Spanish-American war
>U.S. will not replace Spain as the next imperial power
>measure before the war
"A Splendid Little War"
>T.R. and his Rough Riders attack the Spanish at San Juan Hill
>Hearst sails his yacht down to view the war
>1000 die in battle, 5000 die of diseases (yellow fever,malaria)
>5 months long, against Spain, Spain relinquished to the US control of PR, Cuba and The Phillipines
considered a splendid little war
--there was a minimal loss of american lives in battle
--the war was relatively short in comparison to other us engagements
--the us won a resounding victory over its opposition
--the war created great american heroes like tr and admiral george dewey
"Splendid Little War"
In Cuba. Battleship USS Maine created to rescue American citizens living in Cuba accidentally exploded (rather than an act of Spanish aggression) and the American tabloid press and public demanded revenge for the death of 266 American sailors "Remember the Maine and to Hell With Spain." 1898. Theodore Roosevelt who boasted of killing Spaniards like jackrabbits let his Rough Riders to victory. He felt invigorated by the conflict, agreeing with John Hay that it had been a "splendid little war." Less than 400 Americans killed. The US had secured Cuba's independent
>cuba and spain fighting
>uss maine explosion, us assumed spain was responsible and declared war. in the ensuing war the us not only drove spain out of cuba, but also sent a fleet to the spanish controlled philipines and drove the spanish out there too
Cuban-American Treaty 1903
Remained in place until 1934, this treaty paved the way for American domination of the island's sugar industry and contributed to anti-American sentiment among Cuban nationalists.
>formal treaty that ends the war
Sponsored by Republican senator Orville H. Platt of CT in 1901, Cuba promised to provide land for American bases, to devote national revenues to paying back debts to the US, to sign no treaty that would be detrimental to American interests, and to acknowledge the right of the US to intervene at any time to protect its interests in Cuba. After American troops withdrew from Cuba, the amendment was incorporated into the Cuban-American treaty of 1903.
>Committed Cuba to American semicontrol
>Under Platt's stipulations Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation without US approval, and the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba's affairs if domestic order dissolved
• Goes back on word/reverses Teller Amendment promise
• Allows U.S. to intervene when it deems it necessary to protect American interests.
• Very subjective and leads to U.S. control over Cuba and its sugar crops
>need to protect our interests > control cuba
>measure after the war
The Philippines: Filipino Genocide in war 1898-
>Admiral George Dewey wins in 1 day, with 1 death (from a heat stroke)
>Aids Filippino independence leader Emilio Aguinaldo, whose given Teller- like promise of freedom
>American soldiers showered extreme brutality to the civilians there. Buring entire villages, raping of women, slaughtering of children are just some of the hoorors American soldiers committered there.
Led the Filipino rebels, turned against their former allies with the Americans and attacked the American base of operations in Manila in Feb 1899. Did all of this because after Spain conceded (and after centuries under Spanish rule), they were eager to create their own nation.
>American leader George Dewey assured him that they too would have independence following the war. FALSE
Civil War veteran who was ordered to start offensive action in the war in the Philippines against Spain in 1897 under McKinley's presidency. Philippines remained a US territory until 1946.
U.S. Lies Again
>Following war, U.S. annexes Philippines
>Fight war against Aguinaldo and Filippinos from 1898-1903
>Tens of thousands of Americans die, hundreds of thousands of Filippinos
>1901 Insular Cases- Sup. Court rules that Constitution doesn't apply to newly acquired lands. Only in Americans living in the states not territories (Phill, Cuba, PR) Constitution does not follow the flag, native populations were not entitled to same protections and privileges granted to us citizens by the const
>Forceful in politics- punched out an opponent in Albany
>Foreign Policy: "Talk softly but carry a big stick"
>Brokers the end to the Russo-Japanese War w/Treaty of Portsmouth
>Wins Nobel Peace Prize
>Promotes American interest with Open Door Policy
Open Door Policy
New York bankers in charge of railroad investment and trade feared that the tottering Manchu dynasty would fall to European, Russian, and Japanese colonial powers which would prohibit trade with the US. Secretary of State John Hay responded in 1899 by proclaiming the ODP. According to the doctrine, outlined in notes to six major powers, the US enjoyed the right to advance its commercial interest anywhere in the world, at least on terms equal to those of the other imperialist nations. The Chinese marketplace was too important to lose.
>america hoped to gain entry into asian market
An anti foreign secret society known as the Harmonious Righteous Fists (dubbed Boxers by the Western Press) rioted repeatedly in 1898 and 1899, actually occupying the capital city of Beijing and surrounding the foreign embassies. Shocked by the deaths of thousands, including many Chinese converts to Christianity, and determined to maintain American economic interests, President McKinley, not bothering to request congressional approval, contributed 5000 US troops to an international army that put down the uprising. The BR dramatized the Manchu regime's inability to control its own subjects and strengthened John Hay's determination to preserve the economic status quo. A second series of OD notes by the SOS restates the intention of the US to trade in China and laid the basis for twentieth- century foreign trade.
• Corollary= addition
• Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
• It states that should the U.S. need to become involved in the affairs of nations within the Western Hemisphere in order to keep Europeans out, they will. Kind of like policemen of WH
>America's right to assume the role of an international police force and intervene anywhere in the WH where it felt its national security was at stake
• Examples: Dominican Republic, **Panama
Big Stick Policy in Panama
>Necessity of Canal for Navy and American commercial interests were so closely tied to the canal's successful operature
>Columbia owns isthmus of Panama
>Columbia sold rights to build a canal to French led by Philippe Bunau-Varilla
• Diseases like yellow fever decimate workers
>French Company goes bankrupt
>T.R. attempts to purchase the rights for $40 million from French- and $10 million for Columbia
>Columbia vetoes deal hoping for more $$
Roosevelt Takes Action!
• T.R. angry w/ Columbia he sends the battleship U.S.S. Nashville to instigate and protect a revolution among Panamanians on Nov. 2, 1903
• Nov. 3, 1903 Revolt begins and Nashville keeps Columbians from being able to respond.
• Nov. 6 the USA recognizes Panama's independence and its new president—Philippe Bunau-Varilla
Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty
Sec. of State John Hay signs a treaty with Panama—giving the them $40 million for U.S. rights to the zone and a 99 year lease
• Yellow Fever prevention by killing off mosquitoes
• Lock system for the canal
• Finished in 1914 (Same year as WWI)
Taft Replaces Roosevelt
• VP encouraged by T.R. who declares he won't run.
>Wants to be Chief Justice of Supreme Court, not President.
>Serves 1 term and is eventually Chief Justice
Taft's Biggest Contribution to Imperialism: Dollar Diplomacy
• Taft hopes to use less force and more economic persuasion in dealing with Latin America
>Will give $$ to nations in debt to Europeans in return for U.S. control of hemisphere
>Unlike TR who used naval force and battleships, Taft used money to contribute to imperial problems
Woodrow Wilson and Mexico
• Mexicans revolutions eliminate 2 presidents allied with USA (Diaz and
>Anti-American sentiment led by Pancho Villa and Venustiano Carranza
>Wilson sends "Black Jack" Pershing to protect U.S. investments there
>U.S. has military power in Mexico
Wilson and Pershing Team Up Again!
• In 1917, U.S. drawn into WWI by u-boat warfare, Zimmerman Telegram, and economic aid to Allies.
>Pershing is lead General of all U.S. Forces in Europe
Social gospeler, Congregationalist minister who had begun his career trying to convert Indians to Christianity. He argued that the US, as the most economically advanced and most Christian nation in the world, commanded a providential role. Thus linking economic and spiritual expansion, Strong advocated an "imperialism of righteousness." The rest of the world "is to be Christianized and civilized" Strong insisted by the white Americans who were best suited to this greatest task of all time.
written by Josiah Strong, roundly defended American overseas involvements by carefully distinguishing between freedom and independent. People can achieve freedom, he argued, only under the rule of law. And because white Americans had proven themselves superior in the realm of government, they could best bring "freedom" to nonwhite peoples by setting aside the ideal of national independence for a period of enforced guidance.
Senator Albert Beveridge
Faithfully carried this Josiah Strong's message to Congress, insisting that God "has made us [white, English-speaking people] adept in government that we may administer governments among saves and senile peoples...He has marked the American people as His chosen nation to finally lead in the regeneration of the world"
Good Neighbor Policy
Republican stalwart James G. Blaine, secretary of state under presidents Garfield and Harrison, determined to work out a GNP ( a phrase coined by Henry Clay in 1820). "What we want are the markets of these neighbors of ours that lie to the south of us" Wanted to allow American business to dominate local economies, importing their raw materials at low prices and flooding their local markets with goods manufactured in the US.
Founded by a small group of prominent Bostonians in 1899. Organized protest to military action, especially against the widely reported atrocities in the Philippines. Most supported American economic expansion but advocated free trade rather than political domination as the means to reach this goal. All strongly opposed the annexation of new territories. Attracted members such as WEB Du Bois, Mark Twain who said how we are rectifying problems in the cities of america and taking care of the poor yet doing the complete opposite in the Philippines, Carnegie, etc
>Samuel Gompers- league's vice president, felt no sympathy for conquered peoples, describing Filipinos as perhaps nearer the condition of saves and barbarians than any island possessed by any other civilized nation on earth.. He simply wanted to prevent colonized nonwhites from immigrating to the US and inundating american labor
Filipino Liberation Society
Formed by Morrison Swift, leader of the Coxey's Army
Order of presidents
Grover Cleveland Democrat 1893-1897
William McKinley Republican 1897-1901
Theodore Roosevelt Republican 1901-1909
William Taft Republican 1909-1913
Woodrow Wilson Democrat 1913-1921
to what extent did the us live up to its democratic ideals/values from 1880-1920
>Spanish American War
McKinley's justifications for the annexation of the Philippines
1) Could not give back to Spain- that would be cowardly and dishonorable
2) could not turn them over to france or germany our commercial rivals in the orient; that would be bad business and discreditable
3) we could not leave them to themselves they were unfit for self-government
4) there was nothing left for us to do buy take them all and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and civilize and Christianize them
cuba became independent although the us retained until 1934 the legal right to intervene in cuban domestic and foreign affairs
PR and Philipines became american colonies
platform of the american anti-imperialist league
>imperialism as hostile to liberty and tends toward militarism an evil from which it has been out glory to be free.
>all men of whatever race or color are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
>use dec of independence to justify their position
>denounce and condemn the slaughter of the filipinos as a needless horror
why do we get involved in foreign affairs?
1) whats in it for us/ self interest (overriding motive) ex: hawaii for money it could produce but we attach this motive to HC
2) humanitarian cause ^ barbaric and cannot govern themselves
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