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APUSH Unit 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (58)
first permanent English settlement in mainland America, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company and named in honor of King James I.
The "Starving Time"
Settlers in Jamestown weren't used to working so that they could eat and so they began to starve. Some resorted to canibilism and others joined nearby tribes.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
Lord De La Warr
New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, immediately imposing a military regime in Jamestown and declaring war against the Powhatan Confederacy. Employed "Irish tactics" in which his troops burned houses and cornfields.
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.
a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
The great migration
This occurred when large numbers of Puritan families ventured across the Atlantic, seeking religious freedom and a fresh start. It occurred in the 1630s and the destination was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
A member of the Church of England who settled in North America to follow Christian beliefs in a more "pure" way.
Church of England
Anglican church, Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
a colonial area of land controlled directly by a king or other monarch
G. Calvert is also known as Lord Baltimore (and a Catholic), invested in the Virginia Company and eventually got land for his family; helped finding Maryland. Cecil Calvert is his son, the second Lord Baltimore; actually found and ran Maryland.
an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
Governor William Berkley
The governor Bacon rebelled against because he was not protecting his people, he was using favoritism as a form of government and trading with indians for personal gain
Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
the name for the people who are the ones who God has chosen to save in predestination. This is the belief of the Calvinism religion and that only these people can be saved and ordinary people cannot earn salvation. This belief was started by John Calvin in 1536 in France when he published "Institutes of the Christian Religion" and is still the belief of Calvinists today.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
MA Bay Colony
Pilgrims arrive with charter from James I, company members vote to transfer here for self-gov.; 1,000 settlers plant settlements.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
A religious group that believe all people are equal and are basically good. They feel that violence is always wrong, and refused to carry guns or fight. They also believe in solving all problems peacefully.
Quaker's believed in an inner light which was a gift of God's grace, it expressed itself as divine intuition or knowledge unaccountable by ordinary derivations of thought. Transcendentalists believed that every person possesses an Inner Light that can illuminate the highest truth and put a person in touch with God
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution. (1682)
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Two Treatises on Government
book publish by John Locke, set forth idea that people have certain rights and the gov. is formed to protect those rights, life liberty property, he believed ppl were justified in rebelling if this was violated
Atlantic Trading System
- manufactured goods to Africa and Americas
- cash crops to Europe
- african slaves to americas
- basis of European wealth
- Europeans grow & prosper
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Fundamental Orders of CT
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
New England Towne Meetings
Democratic style of government, if on small scale. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
Rev. Increase Mather
A Puritan Reverend that involved the government with religion. He helped put an end to the mass hysteria of the witch trials and the remaining people in jail were released or found innocent.
Rev. Cotton Mather
Son of Increase Mather, true believer in the Salem Witch trials. He accused many of being witches, but later in his life grew to believe less in the supernatural.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643)
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)
First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening was a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
Defended the Great Awakening and revivalist tactics.
Orthodox clergymen who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and the antics of the Great Awakening.
a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
slave and housekeeper of the Parris family. She was accused of witchcraft and said that she was guilty. She lived but was imprisoned.
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.