29 terms

Rocks and Soil 6.E.2.3 & 6.E.2.4

Vocabulary terms for rocks and soil conservation
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parent rock
rock that breaks down and becomes soil
bedrock
the layer of rock beneath the soil
rock
the hard, mineral material that makes up the Earth's crust
rock cycle
a cycle that never stops where rocks are changed from one type into another over long periods of time
sedimentary rock
type of rock formed when layers of sediment are pressed and cemented together over time
metamorphic rock
a rock that has changed by heat or pressure into another type of rock (you can see the layers in some metamorphic rocks)
igneous rock
a type of rock formed from molten rock (magma) that cooled
mineral
these make up rocks and soil
soil
the layer of Earth's surface in which plants grow, made up of clay, sand, silt, top soil and humus
soil properties
texture
structure
fertility
horizons (layers)
temperature
moisture
PH
color
particle size
infiltration
weathering
the action of the wind, water, temperature changes, and other factors in breaking down rocks into smaller pieces
erosion
the wearing away of soil and rock by water, wind, and ice
deposition
dropping sediments that are carried by water, wind, or melting rock onto a solid surface
soil conservation
a method to keep soil fertile and protect it from erosion and nutrient loss
crop rotation
the planting of different crops in a field each year so the soil does not run out of certain nutrients
cover crops
a crop that is planted between seasons to protect the soil from erosion (roots hold soil in place)
contour plowing
when a farmer plows across the land's slope instead of up and down the slope and prevents erosion
no till farming
when a farmer harvests a crop and does not till or turn the soil
terracing (terrace farming)
making stepped ridges on a hillside to increase the area that can be farmed or to reduce runoff or erosion
nutrients
a substance in the soil that provides nourishment or nutrition from plants and animals
stewardship of soil (pedosphere)
protecting our soil (Ex: contour plowing, no till farming, terracing, etc.)
remote sensing
the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
pedosphere
outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil (all soils)
clay
a stiff, sticky fine-grained soil, normally yellow, red, or bluish-gray in color and often forming a layer in the soil water can't pass through. It can be molded into shapes when wet. It is dried and baked to make bricks, pottery, and ceramics.
silt
fine sand, clay, or other material carried by running water and deposited as a sediment, especially in water (middle size pieces of soil)
sand
largest pieces of soil that are normally pale yellowish brown, resulting from the erosion of rocks and forming a major part of beaches, riverbeds, the seabed, and deserts.
organisms
living things in the soil that mix it up and help keep it healthy for growing plants
fertile
Healthy soil for growing plants. Darker color soils tend to be more fertile and grow plants better.
pH of soil
a measure of how acidic soil is. This has to be close to a certain number. If it is too high or too low, plants won't be healthy.
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