the hard, mineral material that makes up the Earth's crust
a cycle that never stops where rocks are changed from one type into another over long periods of time
type of rock formed when layers of sediment are pressed and cemented together over time
a rock that has changed by heat or pressure into another type of rock (you can see the layers in some metamorphic rocks)
a type of rock formed from molten rock (magma) that cooled
these make up rocks and soil
the layer of Earth's surface in which plants grow, made up of clay, sand, silt, top soil and humus
texture structure fertility horizons (layers) temperature moisture PH color particle size infiltration
the action of the wind, water, temperature changes, and other factors in breaking down rocks into smaller pieces
the wearing away of soil and rock by water, wind, and ice
dropping sediments that are carried by water, wind, or melting rock onto a solid surface
a method to keep soil fertile and protect it from erosion and nutrient loss
the planting of different crops in a field each year so the soil does not run out of certain nutrients
a crop that is planted between seasons to protect the soil from erosion (roots hold soil in place)
when a farmer plows across the land's slope instead of up and down the slope and prevents erosion
no till farming
when a farmer harvests a crop and does not till or turn the soil
terracing (terrace farming)
making stepped ridges on a hillside to increase the area that can be farmed or to reduce runoff or erosion
a substance in the soil that provides nourishment or nutrition from plants and animals
stewardship of soil (pedosphere)
protecting our soil (Ex: contour plowing, no till farming, terracing, etc.)
the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
outermost layer of the Earth that is composed of soil (all soils)
a stiff, sticky fine-grained soil, normally yellow, red, or bluish-gray in color and often forming a layer in the soil water can't pass through. It can be molded into shapes when wet. It is dried and baked to make bricks, pottery, and ceramics.
fine sand, clay, or other material carried by running water and deposited as a sediment, especially in water (middle size pieces of soil)
largest pieces of soil that are normally pale yellowish brown, resulting from the erosion of rocks and forming a major part of beaches, riverbeds, the seabed, and deserts.
living things in the soil that mix it up and help keep it healthy for growing plants
Healthy soil for growing plants. Darker color soils tend to be more fertile and grow plants better.
pH of soil
a measure of how acidic soil is. This has to be close to a certain number. If it is too high or too low, plants won't be healthy.