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Patho Midterm Terms
Terms in this set (107)
Normal blood pH
7.35-7.45 (perfect: 7.4)
Normal CO2 levels
Normal HCO3 levels
pH: 7.1, CO2: 80, HCO3: 24
Respiratory Acidosis, No compensation
pH:7.2 , CO2:23 , HCO3: 8
Metabolic Acidosis, Yes compensation
pH: 7.7, CO2: 20, HCO3: 24
Respiratory Alkalosis, No compensation
pH:7.62 , CO2:45 , HCO3: 45
Metabolic acidosis, No compensation
pH: 7.36 , CO2: 80 , HCO3: 44
Respiratory Acidosis, Yes compensation
pH: 7.3, CO2:19 , HCO3: 12
Metabolic Acidosis, Yes compensation
pH: 7.45, CO2: 20, HCO3: 14
Respiratory Alkalosis, Yes compensation
pH: 7.46, CO2: 47, HCO3: 33
Metabolic Alkalosis, Yes compensation
pH: 7.1 , CO2: 30, HCO3: 32
Respiratory Alkalosis and Metabolic Alkalosis, no compensation
Cell size shrinkage
-Example: deterioration of muscle with lack of exercise, women after menopause breast tissue can shrink in size
Cell size increase
-Example: When someone works out or takes steroids and they increase they muscle size with increased strength and weight, increased heart workload over time the heart becomes bigger
Increase in cell #, usually due to hormonal stimulation
-Example: the endometrial lining after menses
Cells turning into another cell type
-Example: smokers esophagus changes to stratified squamous epithelium (why smokers get a bad cough, they have no more cilia to beat mucus or bacteria in the esophagus up so they have to cough it out)
No rhyme or reason to cell change
disrupts normal cell pathways, causes the cell to become more reactive and more likely to cause complications
-stopped with antioxidants
reduction of oxygen
-occurs in kidney, adrenal glands and heart
-denaturing of proteins from a gel to a firm state, decrease ATP production
-occurs in brain
-cells digested by own hydrolases, causes a cyst
-combination of liquefactive and Coagulative symptoms
-occurs in the lungs
-occurs in pancreas, stomach and breast tissue
-caused by lipases, conversion of fats
usually caused by bacteria or trauma
-common in extremities
sudden onset, acute (traumas, hypothermia, chemicals)
chronic (slowed blood flow over time)
-anywhere that an infection has occurred
-common in extremities
-anaerobic tissue (tissue without oxygen) becomes infected
Result of increased aldosterone secretion...
Na and water retention which results in excess fluid in the interstitial space
Decreased albumin secretion results in...
albumin works to transport molecules in the blood, it attracts water, decreased albumin leads to decreased water amount in interstitial space
Water wants to flow...
Solutes want to flow...
high to low concentration
too little K
Diabetes Mellitus- Type 1
-beta cells messed up, cannot make insulin
Diabetes Mellitus - Type 2
aka adult onset
-insulin receptors damaged, unresponsive to insulin
a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use
your body can not use insulin to store sugar as glucagon so it looks for ways to find energy..
-goes to ketones in your muscles to break them down! this leads to muscle fatigue and atrophy
decreased serum osmolarity and increased urine osmolarity
(less solutes in the blood because you are retaining water, more solutes in the urine because the urine is losing water)
Normal blood pressure:
hypocortisol (stress hormone), adrenal glands don't produce enough
-extreme fatigue, weight loss, no appetite, depressed, salt craving
serum osmolarity elevated
concentrated urine, because the body is retaining water
low serum osmolarity
diluted urine, the body is not retaining water
Sodium is responsible for
Extracellular fluid osmotic balance
the accumulation of protein-containing (ascitic) fluid within the abdomen
Macrocrytic anemia is associated with which two anemias?
Pernicious and B12
63 year old man present with pallor, fatigue, and dyspnea on exertion. Complete blood count reveals low MCV, low MHC, WBC normal. What causes these findings?
An irreversible cell adaption characteristic in uterine cervical epithelium is...
How does the body compensate for metabolic acidosis?
The respiratory system decreases CO2 by hyperventalating
How does the body compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
The respiratory system increases CO2 by hypoventilating
an abnormal sensation, typically tingling or pricking ("pins and needles"), caused chiefly by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves.
Tall peaked T waves are a characteristic of what type of electrolyte imbalance?
Low peaked T waves are a characteristic of what type of electrolyte imbalance?
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus symptoms
ketoacidosis, increased blood glucose concentration
Which two things are due to a deficiency in intrinsic factor?
pernicious anemia, gastric atrophy
What does the anion gap test for?
A high anion gap indicated metabolic acidosis, the increased acidity of the blood due to metabolic processes.
What would be an example of non-pathological hormonal hyperplasia?
Thickening of the endometrial lining after fertilization and implantation
What causes a problem in decreased clotting for those with hemophilia?
missing specific clotting factor
In DIC, hemorrhaging occurs after intravascular clotting because of...
clotting factor depletion
Central Diabetes Insipidus deals with...
Nephronic Diabetes Insipidus deals with...
amount of Hemoglobin
Does pernicious anemia present with neurological symptoms?
What is needed to absorb B12?
What does B12 do?
Helps RBC mature, without it they stay small
Autosomal Dominant diseases
Polycystic Kidney Disease
Von Willie Brands
=A house must provide veggies
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
Sickle cell Anemia
=The child took some nickels
X linked Recessive
Inherited nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Duchenes muscular dystrophy
=I cant do homework here
Folate is needed in babies for...
formation of the neural tube, without it there could be possible spina bifida
With autosomal dominant are there such things as carriers?
No, if you have the characteristic you have the disorder
Is there such thing as carriers with autosomal recessive?
Yes, you can be a carrier and not have it, you have to have both recessive alleles to have disorder
Who usually carries the disorder in sex linked diseases?
Who usually contracts the disorder with sex linked diseases?
Carbon dioxide is high...
Iron Deficiency, Chronic blood loss (My Heart Is Cold)
B12 (Pernicious), B9 (Folic), MCV high MCH high, HGB low, RBC low (My New Busy Bee)
Acute Blood loss, Aplastic, Hemolytic (Nelly's New Hiccups Are Annoying)
Swollen tongue, cracking around the lips, spoon shaped nails
mean cell volume, average volume of RBC
mean cell Hb; the average mass of Hb per RBC (Hb per cell - this will change depending on size of RBC - bigger RBC will generally have more Hb)
mean cell Hb concentration; the average concentration of Hb in a given volume of packed RBC
red cell distribution width; measure of variation of RBC volume, higher value = more variation in size
Acute Blood loss
bone marrow disfunction
premature disfunction of RBC
Chronic blood loss
MCV low MCH low
MCV low, MCH low
-decreased Hb, RBCs, Hct
shallow t wave, rounded
high peaked t wave
neurological symptoms, intrinsic factor lacking
AB Aorta An
GERD, H. pyloric, NSAIDS
-type A: 8
-type B: 9
longer not faster
hypercoagulation, thrombosis, hemorrhage, sepsis, placenta
hormonal, family Hx
Hypoventilation, COPD, Psneumonia, Asthma
shock, diabetes Ketoacidosis, Renal Failure
Hyperventilation, Hysteria, Cirrhosis
Vomiting, Diuretics, Antacids, Hypokalemia
Normal anion gap
Anion Gap equation
(Na+)- (Cl- + HCO3-)
What is happening to the cells during acidosis?
H+ rushing into the cell, pushing K out
What is happening to the cells during alkalosis?
K+ is rushing into the cell, pushing H out
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