Atmosphere and temperature
Terms in this set (79)
Very thin air
Artificial satellites orbit
separated into layers different gases
constantly changing and refers to the state of the atmosphere at any given times and place
based on weather observations over many years
The atmosphere is thought to have started as gasses that were emitted during....
80% of the total mass of the atmosphere
Most of the water vapor is in which layer?
important weather occurs here
Protects Earth from meteors/meteoroids/meterorites
______________ did not start to accumulate until about 2.5 billion years ago
air is a _____ of different gasses
what two gasses primarily make up air
nitrogen and oxygen
what gas is more abundant in air
_______ is only present in small amount
Carbon dioxide is an active ______ of energy given off by earth
Carbon dioxide plays a significant role in ______ the atmosphere
oxygen and nitrogen make up what percent of the components of air
3 important materials in air that have an effect on weather
1. Water vapor
2. Dust particles
The amount of water vapor varies by what percent
Why is the amount of variation in water vapor is significant?
It is the source of all clouds & precipitation, absorbs solar energy, and absorbs heat given off by earth
Movement in atmosphere allow large amounts of which 5 particles to be suspended within it for long periods of time?
1. Ash & dust
2. Pollen & Microorganisms
3. Smoke & soot
4. Fine soil
5. Sea salts
______ is a form of oxygen, combining thee oxygen atoms
Ozone is concentrated in a layer located between __ and __ kms above Earths surface
10 and 50
Shape of graph of temp/altitude of the atmosphere
Why is the ozone layer critical to life on Earth?
it absorbs harmful UV radiation
Why does temperature increase in the thermosphere?
Oxygen and nitrogen absorb shortwave, high energy solar radiation.
______ is caused by the weight of the air above
How many layers is the atmosphere divided into vertically?
What are layers of the atmosphere based on?
Temperature changes and reversals
what is responsible for about half of primary pollutants?
What are reactions triggered by strong sunlight?
Upper boundary of the troposphere
The mesopause temperature can approach...
-90 degrees Celsius
What are air pollutants?
Airborne particles and gases that occur in concentrations large enough to endanger health of organisms
third layer of the atmosphere
second layer of the atmosphere
top layer of the atmosphere
Since the thermosphere air is very thin, it only contains a fraction of the atmospheres...
What are lines that connect points that have the same temperature?
What is an albedo?
a fraction of total radiation that is reflected by any surface.
The maximum temperature on a cloud covered day is ____ in comparison to a day when clouds are absent. (but the opposite is true at night)
A coastal location where wind blows from ocean to shore experiences ______ summers and _____ winters (The opposite is true when wind blows from land to shore)
cool and mild
What is conduction?
the transfer of heat through molecular activity.
What is convection?
transfer of heat by movement or circulation within a substance. (As water is heated, it expands and becomes less dense and will rise because of buoyancy)
What is radiation?
transfer of heat through space by electromagnetic waves
What is temperature control?
Any factor that causes temperature to vary.
occurs when electromagnetic waves bounce off an object
produces rays the travel in different directions
energy absorbed by atmosphere and clouds
Why do land and water temperature vary?
Land temp heats more rapidly and to higher temps, but also cools more rapidly and to cooler temps.
Describe the greenhouse effect
The heating of Earths surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted.
Some incoming solar radiation is not absorbed and re-radiated. Instead is is absorbed by chlorophyll in plants in a process called...?
Why does the temperature increase in the stratosphere?
Since ozone absorbs UV radiation from the sun, the stratosphere gets heated.
Why does temperature decrease in the troposphere?
Because radiation is absorbed at Earths surface
What is temperature?
A measure of the average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules. (The energy causes particles to move faster and temperature to rise)
What is heat?
The energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperature.
How is ozone produced?
when a single atom of oxygen and a molecule of oxygen collide.
Why is Ozone concentrated?
UV radiation is sufficient to produce single atoms of oxygen, and there are enough gas molecules to bring about the required collisions
What is a temperature inversion?
an upside down temperate condition where the air at earths surface is colder than the air above (hot on top of cold)
How are temperature inversions destroyed?
1. The sun warms the ground and atmosphere
2. Mixing of air by wind
Order of 4 layers from bottom to top
Why are temperature inversions dangerous?
Pollutants get trapped
Describe the temperature/altitude of the troposphere
as altitude increases, temp decreases
Describe the temperature/altitude of the stratosphere
stays constant until 20km, then as altitude increases, temp increases
Describe the temperature/altitude of the mesosphere
as altitude increases, temp decreases
Describe the temperature/altitude of the thermosphere
as altitude increases, temp increases
Upper boundary of stratosphere
upper boundary of mesosphere
upper layer of troposphere