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SFA Geology 131 Flashcards
Terms in this set (58)
Fragments and pieces of solidified magma ejected forcefully from a volcano are referred to as...
In a quiet lagoon, what sedimentary structure is likely to form
Minerals that are composed of a single element are referred to as...
The resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion is known as...
Chalcopyrite and bornite
Which of the following ore minerals are associated copper ore concentrations?
a.) pyrite and sphalerite
b.) chalcopyrite and bornite
c.) cassiterite and wolfamite
d.) hematite and magnetite
Large masses of molten magma that rise through the Earth's surface are known as...
_______________ metamorphism is the result of large-scale tectonic events involving movement and deformation of the Earth's crust.
Minerals that are mined for their metal content are referred to as...
T/F All chemical precipitate sedimentary rocks have a crystalline texture.
Granite gravel is commonly known as...
Sedimentary rock composed of organic components that were deposited in a low oxygen environment is known as...
T/F All detrital sedimentary rocks have a clastic texture.
The main agent of change during contact metamorphism is _____________.
All of the following minerals are associated with iron ores except _____________.
Linear geographic clusters of hazardous active volcanoes generally form at _______________.
The point of contact of two lithospheric plates during regional metamorphism is known as the ____________.
What is one major environment which sediment can not accumulate?
Which of the following volcano types does not usually have quiet lava flows?
b.) Shield volcanoes
c.) Fissure volcanoes
d.) Mid-ocean ridge volcanoes
___________ magmas originate in the lower crust and upper mantle and are therefore rich in iron and magnesium.
The mineralogy and texture is metamorphic rocks is referred to as the ___________.
In the presence of atmospheric oxygen, many metals will form secondary minerals through a process known as:
The transportation of sediment from one location to another is known as:
T/F Metamorphic grade is the measure of intensity of metamorphism to which a given rock has been subjected.
__________ minerals are stable over a specific range of temperature and pressure conditions and are useful for determining metamorphic grade.
In contact metamorphism, the halo of metamorphism surrounding the magma body is known as an ______________.
Fine-grained metamorphic rocks that form in fault zones during dynamic metamorphism are known as ______________.
The process of a mineral separating in water is known as:
The process of adding water molecules to the crystal structure of some minerals is known as _______________.
The fluidity of a magma, determined by the amount of silica, is known as _____________.
The type of volcanic eruption is named after the 79 A.D. eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.
The process of turning sediment into sedimentary rock is known as ________________.
Intrusive ingenious rocks form underground and do not erupt as lava at the Earth's surface. What plutonic body is NOT formed by intrusive ingneous rocks?
Which of the following sedimentary environments would not be a place where mud cracks would be likely to form?
The degree to which all particles in a sediment sample are the same size is referred to as ______________.
If an igneous rock has two different distinct grain sizes, it is said to have a ____________ texture.
The physical and chemical breakdown of rock material at or near the Earth's surface is known as ____________.
Which of the following sediment characteristics provides evidence of the distance a sediment particle has traveled from its original source?
a.) Chemical composition
Volcanic Explosivity Index
In Volcanology, what does VEI mean?
A foreign piece of rock included in a magma body as it cools and crystallizes is known as a _______________.
_________________ is chemically stable at the Earth's surface and is commonly found in sedimentary rocks.
Which of the following characteristics is NOT part of the definition of a mineral?
Sedimentary rocks contain few resources
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a.) Sedimentary rocks are the most commonly encountered Earth material.
b.) Sedimentary rocks contain few resources.
c.) Sedimentary rocks are often found at the Earth's surface.
d.) Sedimentary rocks make up about 5% of the Earth's crust
Directed pressures can cause mineral grains within a rock to re-align themselves through a metamorphic process known as _____________.
Which of the following is NOT a process that can alter the original parent material during metamorphism?
Some of the properties used to classify foliated metamorphic rocks include all of the following except:
a.) Geographic Location
What type of mechanical weathering was used by early humans to quarry rocks into smaller pieces?
______________ refers to the size, shape, and arrangement of minerals in a rock and is related to the mode of transportation and depositional environment.
Which of the following transportation mechanisms is the most common way sediment is carried from one environment to another?
T/F Sedimentary structures help geologists determine and interpret Earth history.
Metamorphic rocks that form as a result of regional metamorphism most often have a _____________ texture.
Some of the more common minerals found in chemical precipitate sedimentary rocks include all BUT the following:
Which mineral group contains minerals that dissolve easily in water and may have fluorescent properties?
Silt and Clay
Which of the following sediment sizes are most often transported as part of the suspended load in a stream channel or wind current?
a.) Sand and Silt
b.) Gravel and Silt
c.) Sand and Gravel
d.) Silt and Clay
When lava cools so quickly that the minerals do not have time to organize in their crystal lattice, the resulting rocks will have a ________________ texture.
_____________ magmas are most often generated in continental crust
Which of the following metamorphic processes is of primary importance in the foundation of economic deposits of important ore minerals?
a.) Dynamic Metamorphism
b.) Contact Metamorphism
c.) Regional Metamorphism
_____________ rocks are the most abundant rock type in the Earth's crust.
Any type of per-existing rock that has been altered by heat and pressure as a solid is known as a __________________ rock.
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The lower density of the continental crust results from its composition, which approximates this rock type:
How did the discovery of magnetic reversals helped to develop the theory of plate tectonics?
Where does the youngest oceanic crust occur?
Which mineral in Bowen's reaction series is most stable at the Earth's surface?