19 terms

Chapter 4-techniques of physical examination

STUDY
PLAY
4 techniques used in physical assessment
Inspection
Palpation
Percussion
Auscultation
Inspection
observing patients for physical characteristics and behaviors and smelling for odors
Palpation
assessment of the patient through touch to assess texture, temperature, moisture, size, shape, location, position, vibration, crepitus, tenderness, pain and edema. Push and make a circle.
Light palpation
1 cm
moderate/deep palpation
2-4 cm. Feeling for masses
Percussion
Produce sound or elicit tenderness. Vibrations of the fingers on the patients body make the percussion tones conducted into the patients body
Loud percussion tones
traveling through air. Over lungs and hallow stomach
Quiet percussion tones
travel through dense tissue. Over the bones
Direct percussion
tap with your fingers directly on the patients skin
Indirect percussion
Percuss on yourself. Use your non dominant hand as a barrier between the dominant hand and your patient.
Auscultation
Listen for sounds produced by the body from movement of organs and tissues. Use a stethoscope it will not amplify the sound it just conducts them without environmental noises. Use for blood pressure, lungs, heart and abdomen.
Precautions to prevent infection
Hand hygiene, cough etiquette, latex allergy, skin reactions
Standard percautions
help ensure that providers treat all patients equally and to prevent disease transmission during contact with non-intact skin, membranes, body substances, and blood borne contacts.
Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette
cover their mouths/noses when sneezing/coughing. Disposing of tissues after use.
Latex allergy
avoid contact with latex whenever possible
Skin reactions
Nurses have sensitive skin because of frequent hand washing. Use skin moisturizers, use hand gel instead of soap and water, use gloves for "wet" activitiesq
Ophthalmoscope
handheld lenses, lights, and mirrors that enables visualization of the interior structures of the eye
Otoscope
directs light into the ear to visualize ear canal and tympanic membrane
tuning fork
Used to determine vibration sense in the neuromuscular system and to determine conductive versus sensorineural hearing loss via the ears.