AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Agriculture

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Agriculture began by a combination of accident and experiment. (notes)

Agriculture was invented approximately 10,000 years ago in multiple hearths of crop and livestock.(book)
How was agriculture invented?
Most likely in a fishing settlement.
*Multiple hearths mean that people have produced food in distinctive ways in different regions.
Where was agriculture invented?
44% and going down.
What is the percentage of farmers in the developing world?
5% and going down.
What is the percentage of farmers in the developed world?
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
What is agribusiness?
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied on hunting and gathering.
What is the agricultural revolution?
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock fir sustenance of economic gain.
What is agriculture?
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
AKA: Aqua Culture
What is aquaculture?
A grass that yields grain for food.
AKA: Cereal
What is cereal grain?
Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
What is a chaff?
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
What is combine?
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
What is commercial agriculture?
Any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
What is a crop?
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
What is crop rotation?
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
AKA: Semiarid land degradation.
What is desertification?
The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (Calories in the United States).
What is dietary energy consumption?
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
What is double cropping?
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
What is food security?
Seed of a cereal grass.
What is grain?
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
What is the Green Revolution?
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers.
What is horticulture?
The outer covering of a seed.
What is a hull?
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
What is intensive subsistence agriculture?
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.(book defintion)
*Distance that milk can be delivered without spoiling.(notes definition)
What is milkshed?
The Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe sawah.
What is a paddy?
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
What is pastoral nomadism?
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
What is a pasture?
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
What is a plantation?
The most productive farmland.
What is prime agricultural land?
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
What is ranching?
A machine that cuts cereal gran standing in a field.
What is a reaper?
A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
What is a ridge tillage?
A flooded field for growing rice.
What is a sawah?
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
What is shifting cultivation?
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared be slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
What is slash-and-burn agriculture?
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
What is spring wheat?
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption but the farmer and the farmer's family.
What is subsistence agriculture?
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotation sol-resorting crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
What is sustainable agriculture?
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
What is a swidden?
To beat out grain from stalks.
What is a thresh?
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
What is a transhumance?
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because "truck" was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or "exchange of commodities."
What is truck farming?
Dietary energy consumptionthat is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
What is undernourishment?
Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberatley flooded field to promote growth.
What is wet rice?
To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind.
What is a winnow?
Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer.
What is winter wheat?
Before the invention of agriculture, 100% of humans obtained food by hunting and gathering.
Before the invention of agriculture how did humans obtain food?
1.) Increase exports from those with a surplus.
2.) Expand farm land.
What are strategies to increse food supply?
1.) Identify a crop that can be sold for more than land costs.
2.) Compare the cost of shipping.
*Farmers located close to market select crops with high transportation costs while distamt farmers grop crops with cheaper transportation costs.
Describe the Von Thunen model.
-Rising cost and declining revenue.
-Labor Intensive - cows must be milked twice a day.
-Winter feed - grass unavailable in the winter.
What are problems for Dairy Farmers?
Practiced where it is too dry for crops.
Where is livestock farming practiced?
Corn.
What is the most important crop grown in the U.S.?
Wheat.
What is the most important crop grown globally?
-Stores easily.
-Higher price.
-Nutritious.
-Used for export, major source of income.
Why is wheat the most important crop grown globally?
75%
What percentage of income comes from animal products?
Mixed crop and livestock farming.
What is the most common farming style in the U.S.?
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
What type of commercial agriculture is predominant in the southeast of the U.S.?
Intensive subsistence.
Which type of subsistence agriculture is used by the most people?
Shifting cultivation.
Which type of subsistence agriculture uses the most land?
Plantation farming.
Which type of subsistence agriculture is the most profitable?
Large commercial farms that specialize in one or two crops.
What is plantation farming?
Located in developing nations but owned by developed.
Where is plantation farming located?
Rainy parts of Asia.
Where is intensive subsistence agriculture with wet rice mostly located?
Dry areas: North Africa, SW Asia.
Where is pastoral nomadism mostly practiced?
True.
True or false: A large herd is a symbol of power and prestige?
False.
Pastoral Nomadism is DECLINING due too modern technology.
True or false: Pastoral Nomadism is increasing?
Rainforests of South America, Central/West Africa, SE Asia.
Where are you most likely to find Shifting Cultivation?
-More wind and water erosion due to no fallow land to hold the soil in place.
-More CO2.
-Removal of wildlife habitat.
What are causes to shifting cultivation becoming commercial?
Climate, environment, culture.
What determines what we eat?
True.
True or false: Multiple hearts mean that people have produced food in distinctive ways in different regions?
The goal is to fee your family.
What is the goal of subsistence agriculture?
The goal is to profit.
What is the goal of commercial agriculture?
Developing.
Is subsistence agriculture found in the developed world or the developing world?
Developed.
Is commercial agriculture found in the developed world or the developing world?
Small.
Does subsistence agriculture use small or large farms?
Large.
Does commercial agriculture use small or large farms?
Commercial agriculture.
Does subsistence agriculture or commercial agriculture partake in agribusiness?
Step 1 - Slash - clear trees and undergrowth.
What is step 1 of shifting cultivation?
Step 2 - Burn - ashes provide nutrients to the soil.
What is step 2 of shifting cultivation?
Step 3 - Swidden - land prepared with hand tools.
What is step 3 of shifting cultivation?
Step 4 - Grow - soil last about three years.
What is step 4 of shifting cultivation?
Step 5 - Move - go to a new area and repeat.

-Return to same land in about 6 to 20 years.
What is step 5 of shifting cultivation?
-Better transportation.
-Subsidies.
-Improved preservations.
-Shipped across the globe.
-Forests are not close to the market.
Why is Von Thunen's model outdated?
Harder to ship and spoils quickly.
Why is horticulture and dairy closest to the city?
Trees are close because they are heavy and harder to ship.
Why is forestry in the 2nd ring?
They are easier to ship and they last longer.
Why are crops in the 3rd ring?
Animals walk themselves to the city and then are slaughtered in the city instead of farms to insure freshness.
Why is animal grazing farthest away from the city?
-Subsidies lower the global price of food.
-Farmers have a secure income.
What are PROS to agricultural subsidies?
-LDC farmers being undercut by cheap MDC grain.
-Tax dollars are needed to fund subsidies.
What are CONS to agricultural subsidies?
A subsidy is government money given to assist a business.
1.) Farmers paid to avoid producing crops that are in excess supply.
2.) Government pays farmers when prices are low.
3.) Government buys surplus and sells it to foreign governments.
*U.S. spends about 20 billion per year on agricultural subsidies.
*Europe spends even more.
What is a subsidy?
Genetically Modified Organism
-The mixing of genetic material of two or more species that would now mix in nature.
What is a GMO?
-Increased nutrition.
-Higher yields.
-Pest resistance.
What are PROS to GMOs?
-Future health problems?
-Increased dependence on U.S. -seeds are patented and seeds cannot be saved.
-Export problems -many countries shun GMOs.
What are CONS to GMOs?