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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. What is keratin?
  2. ...
  3. What are Cell Communicating ingredients?
  4. What is the skin barrier?
  1. a ...
  2. b The outer layer of skin which helps the skin retain moisture. The skin barrier is like a brick wall, with each brick (or cell) held in place by mortar (fats called lipids).
  3. c When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, Melanocytes (Melanin producing cells in the skin) produce increased amounts of the skin pigment Melanin as a mechanism of defense to help arrest radiation damage to the skin's cellular structures and DNA.
  4. d A fibrous protein that occurs in the outer layer of skin and in horny tissues such as hair, feathers, nails and hooves.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. There is no one particular skin-care ingredient which is more valuable than the rest. "Skin is complicated. Skin requires a cocktail of ingredients." [Paula Begoun, Cosmetic Cop Podcast, July 18th, 2012]
  2. Another term for freckles. They are typically associated with red hair and fair skin. The MC1R gene is believed to be the gene responsible for freckles and it is closely associated with red hair and fair skin.
  3. Lanolin is an oily, yellow substance produced by the oil glands in a sheep's skin. It coats the sheep's wool, acting as a waterproof barrier, as a result, when the sheep are in inclement weather for hours, they are less affected by the cold. Known in Greek and Roman times, it was noticed that sheep farmer's had smooth, well-hydrated hands, so use of Lanolin became widespread. []
  4. Ceramides (Cera = wax) are lipids which form part of the skin barrier.
  5. retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacinamide, lecithin, linolenic acid, linolenic acid, phospholipids, carnitine, carnosine, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine cyclic phosphate, palmitoyl oligopeptide, palmitoyl tripeptide-3 (and most other peptides), and pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract []

5 True/False questions

  1. What does the SPF (Sun Protection Factor) number on the sunscreen bottle indicate?SPF indicates length of time a person can remain in the sun without burning (e.g. THEORETICALLY, a person who burns in 10 minutes using a sunscreen with SPF 15, can remain under the sun for 150 minutes). Practically, an SPF of 15 will last around an hour. []


  2. What is a Cell-Communicating Ingredient?A thickened secretion plugging a duct of the skin, especially of a sebaceous gland [from L. "com" = with, "edere" = eating ; literally = glutton] []


  3. What are milia?Ceramides (Cera = wax) are lipids which form part of the skin barrier.


  4. What is the goal of skin care for damaged skin?Damaged skin (typically damaged by the sun) cannot produce many of the ingredients needed to maintain skin's youthful appearance, and so the goal of skin care products is to replace and replenish those ingredients to restore youthful skin.


  5. What is the most important thing you can do to keep your skin healthy and attractive?AVOID THE SUN.


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