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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What is the Stratum Corneum [from L. "stratum" = layer, "cornus" = horn] ?
  2. How long does the Cell Cycle take?
  3. There are only a few sunscreen ingredients available which can protect skin from UVA ("Aging" Radiation) damage. What are they?
  4. What is the Cell Cycle?
  5. When are the sun's rays at their most potent (and most importantly avoided)?
  1. a The horny outer layer of the Epidermis, consisting of several layers of flat, keratinized (replete with the protein keratin thus becoming horn-like in texture), nonnucleated, dead or peeling cells. []
  2. b Between 26 to 42 days. [Skin Type Solution, 18]
  3. c Between 10 am and 4pm
  4. d Basal ["from the base or bottom"] cells (or "Mother Cells"), the lowest portion of the Epidermis which produce all other Epidermal cells, divide into "Daughter Cells" which rise up to the higher levels of the Epidermis. As they travel, they age and die, so that the top layer consists of dead cells which naturally exfoliate off. [Skin Type Solution, 18]
  5. e 2 physical blockers : Titanium Dioxide (UVB & short wave UVA) and Zinc Oxide (UVB & short + long wave UVA). 5 chemical blockers : Avobenzone / Parsol 1789 (only protects against long wave UVA radiation. requires Octocrylene be present in a 2:1 ratio to remain photostable under sun exposure), Mexoryl SX (short wave UVA protection), Mexoryl XL (long wave UVA protection),
    Tinosorb S (prevents photodegradation of other ingredients), Tinosorb M (triple-action protection : absorb, reflect, scatter UV light)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Lanolin is an oily, yellow substance produced by the oil glands in a sheep's skin. It coats the sheep's wool, acting as a waterproof barrier, as a result, when the sheep are in inclement weather for hours, they are less affected by the cold. Known in Greek and Roman times, it was noticed that sheep farmer's had smooth, well-hydrated hands, so use of Lanolin became widespread. []
  2. Small whitish lumps on the skin caused by clogged sebaceous glands. Milia typically occur on the face with the most common locations being around the eyes, face, across the nose and cheeks. In many instances, Milia disappear after a few weeks.
  3. A Pedicure. In a pedicure, dead skin cells are sanded off the heel of the foot using an emery board. After a pedicure the heel is smooth as a baby's bottom. Exfoliation accomplishes a similar function.
  4. Another term for freckles. They are typically associated with red hair and fair skin. The MC1R gene is believed to be the gene responsible for freckles and it is closely associated with red hair and fair skin.
  5. 10 percent [Cosmetic Cop Podcast, July 18th, 2012]

5 True/False questions

  1. And to conclude finally : Are wrinkles a natural part of ageing?To quote Dr. Leslie Baumann from The Skin Type Solution page 352, "Skin that NEVER SEES THE SUN does not wrinkle, so with the right behaviors wrinkles can be avoided...."


  2. What is the skin barrier?The Epidermis [Gk. "epi" = over, "dermis" = skin] is the top layer of skin. When you look at someone's skin, you are looking at the very top layer, made of up of cells which reflect light. When the top layer is smooth, it reflects light evenly so that skin looks more uniform and radiant than when the surface is rougher. [Skin Type Solution, 18]


  3. What is a humectant?A thickened secretion plugging a duct of the skin, especially of a sebaceous gland [from L. "com" = with, "edere" = eating ; literally = glutton] []


  4. What does SPF refer to in relation to UVA and UVB radiation?The SPF number refers to the degree of protection the sunscreen offers from UVB ("Burning") radiation. It does NOT have any bearing on UVA ("Aging") radiation protection.


  5. Is a Tan the body's way of trying to "look good"?Damaged skin (typically damaged by the sun) cannot produce many of the ingredients needed to maintain skin's youthful appearance, and so the goal of skin care products is to replace and replenish those ingredients to restore youthful skin.