5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What is the skin barrier?
- What are melanocytes?
- Is Petrolatum safe?
- What effect does Alcohol have on skin?
- What is an Emulsifier [from L. "emulgere" = to milk out, from "ex" = out and "mulgere" = to milk]?
- a The outer layer of skin which helps the skin retain moisture. The skin barrier is like a brick wall, with each brick (or cell) held in place by mortar (fats called lipids).
- b A surfactant that makes it possible for oil and water to mix (typically they don't) and form an emulsion [a colloid (mixture / suspension) where both phases are liquids].
- c The major concern is the presence of PAH's (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in unrefined petrolatum. Consumers should look for USP grade Petrolatum (BP in Britain and Ph.Eur in Europe) indicating the petrolatum meets specific purity standards, and buy trusted brands, like Vaseline.
- d Causes Free Radical Damage.
- e Melanocytes are the pigment (melanin) producing skin cells.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Tinosorb S and M [http://blog.pharmacymix.com/why-tinosorb-m-and-tinosorb-s-are-effective]
- Generally speaking, BHA is a stronger exfoliant than AHA. It can exfoliate more vigorously, but presents greater risk of burning and damaging the skin. BHA can penetrate into the pores of the skin and exfoliate dead skin cells from inside the pores, which AHA cannot.
- Tanning beds are terrible for the skin. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated tanning beds as being a Level 1 Carcinogen, meaning they are as carcinogenic as Mustard Gas and Arsenic.
- Damaged skin (typically damaged by the sun) cannot produce many of the ingredients needed to maintain skin's youthful appearance, and so the goal of skin care products is to replace and replenish those ingredients to restore youthful skin.
- Parents who are concerned about their children's future appearance are advised to take their children (particularly teenagers) to a Dermatologist and allow them to see what their skin will look like in the near future. Hopefully that will communicate to them the folly of sunbathing, tanning beds and sun exposure in general.
5 True/False questions
What are the 2 methods of preventing unwanted skin pigment formation? → Vitamin C promotes Collage Synthesis and is an antioxidant.
Besides wrinkles, what is another skin problem which significantly detracts from the face and skin's appearance? → A mixture of molecules (amino acids and salts) within the cells comprising the outermost layer of the skin. The molecules are hygroscopic [Greek. "hygro" = wet, "skopion" = to look at], attracting and absorbing water, thus hydrating the skin. [www.clinuvel.com]
What are some examples of ingredients which forestall the transfer of color into skin cells? → Cetearyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Myristate, Triglyceride, Myristic Acid, Palmitic Acid, PEG-60 Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Linoleate, Cyclomethicone, Dimethicone, Decyl Oleate, and Stearic Acid. Natural Emollients include : Lanolin, Plant Oils (Jojoba), Aloe Vera, Shea Butter, and Cocoa Butter. [http://www.mybeautybeat.com/blog/whats-the-difference-between-moisturizer-and-emollient/]
What is the simplest skin-care practice one can do to dramatically and immediately improve the appearance of the skin? → Exfoliation : with either an AHA (Glycolic Acid) or a BHA (Salicylic Acid). Exfoliation removes the surface layer of skin much more effectively and efficiently than the body can do on its own, effectively "accelerating" the natural exfoliation process. The morning following the Exfoliation (after the skin has recovered from the momentary irritation), the skin WILL look markedly smoother.
How long does the Cell Cycle take? → Basal ["from the base or bottom"] cells (or "Mother Cells"), the lowest portion of the Epidermis which produce all other Epidermal cells, divide into "Daughter Cells" which rise up to the higher levels of the Epidermis. As they travel, they age and die, so that the top layer consists of dead cells which naturally exfoliate off. [Skin Type Solution, 18]