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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What skin related problems arise directly as a result of sun exposure?
  2. What is retinol used to treat?
  3. What is a Blackhead?
  4. When are the sun's rays at their most potent (and most importantly avoided)?
  5. What is Sebaceous Hyperplasia?
  1. a Retinol has been proven to reduce fine lines, wrinkles, promote collagen production, accelerate the removal of dead skin cells by increasing the rate at which skin cells divide, consequently preventing the formation of brown spots as Melanocytes cannot produce pigment with the same speed at which skin cells are renewed. [Skin Type Solution, 15]
  2. b Between 10 am and 4pm
  3. c ...
  4. d Blackheads (also called Comedones) are an accumulation of sebum, keratin, skin debris and bacteria within a hair follicle. Follicles in the skin become blocked with sebum, causing the follicle to widen, and collect dead skin cells and bacteria. Blackheads, in contrast to Whiteheads, are open to the air, causing the oils to oxidize, turning them brown (similar process to an apple browning with exposure to oxygen). []
  5. e 1. discoloration of the skin / uneven skin tone (hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation, decrease or increase in skin pigment) 2. uneven pigmentation (solar lentigo / age spot, either brown, red or black in color) 3. dullness, rough texture (leathery skin) 4. dryness 5. wrinkles (fine lines and deeper wrinkles) 6. actinic keratosis (a precanerous overgrowth of skin caused by excess sun exposure) 7. rosacea 8. melasma (dark irregular patches on the face commonly caused by pregnancy) 9. thinning of the skin (visible veins, broken blood vessels) 10. brown bumps, white bumps (blackheads, whiteheads)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. It is derived from Vitamin A but has a different chemical structure.
  2. Hydroquinone, Arbutin, Licorice Extract, Kojic Acid
  3. USP = United States Pharmaceutical. The USP was founded in 1820 to combat inconsistent drug quality and protect the public health; to create a system of standards to help ensure medication quality and uniformity in the United States. Official USP standards are legally enforceable by the U.S. Food Drug and Administration (FDA) for drugs imported to or marketed in the United States. USP establishes both written standards and physical USP Reference Standards. []
  4. Exfoliants are products which help to remove the surface layer of skin, which is comprised of dead skin cells.
  5. Ingredients which soothe the skin and reduce inflammation.

5 True/False questions

  1. What is Genistein?Genistein is a polyphenol found in soybeans and other plants that mimics the action of Estrogen in the body, helping to reduce the production of wrinkles; however, like Estrogen, it also promotes increased pigmentation of the skin.


  2. What are milia?Small whitish lumps on the skin caused by clogged sebaceous glands. Milia typically occur on the face with the most common locations being around the eyes, face, across the nose and cheeks. In many instances, Milia disappear after a few weeks.


  3. What is a good analogy for exfoliation?A Pedicure. In a pedicure, dead skin cells are sanded off the heel of the foot using an emery board. After a pedicure the heel is smooth as a baby's bottom. Exfoliation accomplishes a similar function.


  4. What is the simplest skin-care practice one can do to dramatically and immediately improve the appearance of the skin?Exfoliation : with either an AHA (Glycolic Acid) or a BHA (Salicylic Acid). Exfoliation removes the surface layer of skin much more effectively and efficiently than the body can do on its own, effectively "accelerating" the natural exfoliation process. The morning following the Exfoliation (after the skin has recovered from the momentary irritation), the skin WILL look markedly smoother.


  5. How long does it take to acquire the recommended daily intake of Vitamin D from the sun?Exposing just an arm to the sun at noon during the summer for 20 minutes will provide the body with approximately 10,000 IU of Vitamin D.