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Ch5 - Contingency & Situation Leadership -m
Terms in this set (55)
What are the five situational leadership models?
Fielders Contingency Theory; House's Path-Goal Theory; Hersey & Blanchard Situational Leadership; Vroom & Jago's Normative Decision Model; Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
Which situational leadership model suggest that leaders should be matched to situations according to their style because leadership style is difficult to change?
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
Fielder's Contigency Theory suggests that control is determined by which three dimensions?
leader-member relations; task structure & position power
Which situational leadership model is based on the expectancy theory of motivation and specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a give situation?
What are the four leadership styles according to the path-goal theory?
directive, supportive, participative & achievement-oriented
Which situational leadership model states that leaders must choose a style that elicits the correct degree of group participation when making decisions and includes five decisions-making styles and seven situational factors?
Normative Decision Model
What are the five decision-making styles in the Normative Decision Model?
decide; consult (individually); consult (group); facilitate; & delegate
What are the seven situational factors in the Normative Decision Model?
decision significance; importance of commitment; leader expertise; likelihood of commitment; group support; group expertise; team competence
Which situational leadership model focusing on a leader's quality relationships with individual group members?
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
What are eight crisis leadership behaviors?
be decisive; lead w/ compassion; reestablish the usual work routine; avoid a circle-the-wagons mentality; display optimism; prevent the crisis through disaster planning; provide stable performance; be a transformational leader
Contingency Approach to Leadership
The contention that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon situational forces, including group member characteristics.
Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
The best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working. The theory classifies a manager's leadership style as relationship motivated or task motivated. The theory states that task-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of both high control and low control. Relationship-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of moderate control.
Least preferred coworker (LPC) scale
Measures the degree to which a leader describes favorably or unfavorably his or her least preferred coworker.
Relatively favorable terms tends to be relationship motivated. In contrast, a person who describes this coworker in an unfavorable manner tends to be task motivated.
The control classifications are determined by rating the situation on its three dimensions:
1. leader-member relations measure how well the group and the leader get along;
2. task structure measures how clearly the procedures, goals, and evaluation of the job are defined; and
3. position power measures the leader's authority to hire, fire, discipline, and grant salary increases to group members.
Leader-member relations contribute as much to situation favorability as do task structure and position power combined. The leader therefore has the most control in a situation in which relationships with members are the best.
Developed by Robert House: An explanation of leadership effectiveness that specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.
To achieve the outcomes of productivity and morale, the manager choses one of four leadership styles depending on the characteristics of the situation and the demands of the task.
Contingency Factors to consider when choosing a path-goal leadership style:
The type of subordinates is determined by how much control they think they have over the environment (locus of control) and by how well they think they can do the assigned task.
Directive Path-Goal Leadership Style
(similar to task motivated) emphasizes formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling. When the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.
Supportive Path-Goal Leadership Style
(similar to relationship motivated) displays concern for group members' well-being and creates an emotionally supportive climate. The supportive leader enhances morale when group members work on dissatisfying, stressful, or frustrating tasks. Group members who are unsure of themselves prefer the supportive leadership style.
Participative Path-Goal Leadership Style
The leader who is participative consults with group members to gather their suggestions, and then considers these suggestions seriously when making a decision. The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform non-repetitive tasks.
Achievement-Oriented Path-Goal Leadership Style
Sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high expectations for team members, who are also expected to assume responsibility. This leadership style works well with achievement-oriented team members and with those working on ambiguous and non-repetitive tasks.
Situational Leadership II (SLII) by Blanchard
A model of leadership that explains how to match the leadership style to capabilities of group members on a given task.
SLII explains that effective leadership depends on two independent behaviors: supporting and directing:
S-1: Directive Leader, high direction, low support
D1—Enthusiastic Beginner. The learner has low competence but high commitment.
S-2: Coaching Leader, high direct, high support
D2—Disillusioned Learner. The individual has gained some competence but has been disappointed after having experienced several setbacks. Commitment at this stage is low.
S3: Supportive Leader, low direct, high support
D3—Capable but Cautious Performer. The learner has growing competence, yet commitment is variable.
S4: Delegating Leader: low direct, low support
D4—Self-Reliant Achiever. The learner has high competence and commitment
Normative Decision Model-Victor Vroom
A view of leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.
Normative Decision-Making Styles
1. Decide. The leader makes the decision alone and either announces or sells it to the group. The leader might use expertise in collecting information from the group or from others who appear to have information relevant to the problem.
2.Consult (Individually). The leader presents the problem to the group members individually, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
3.Consult (Group). The leader presents the problem to group members in a meeting, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
4.Facilitate. The leader presents the problem and then acts as a facilitator, defining the problem to be solved and the boundaries in which the decision must be made. The leader wants concurrence and avoids having his or her ideas receive more weight based on position power.
5.Delegate. The leader permits the group to make the decision within prescribed limits. Although the leader does not directly intervene in the group's deliberations unless explicitly asked, he or she works behind the scenes, providing resources and encouragement.
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Contingency Theory
Leaders who adapt their style to different individuals within the group, or have different quality relationships with individual group members, are essentially practicing contingency leadership.
The process of leading group members through a sudden and largely unanticipated, intensely negative, and emotionally draining circumstance
Crisis Leadership Attributes
Lead with Compassion
Reestablish the Usual Work Routine
Avoid a Circle-the-Wagons Mentality
Prevent Crisis through Disaster Planning
Provide Stable Performance
Be a Transformational Leader
Evidence-Based Leadership or Management
The approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.
When asked about leadership effectiveness, an executive said in part, "The length of the leash varies with different people. . ." The executive's comments support the ________ perspective on leadership.
The contingency approach to leadership explains that leaders are most effective when they
Make their behavior contingent upon situational forces
Baxter, a chief operating officer, practices contingency leadership when he
Discards old ideas that no longer fit the circumstances
Contingency leadership theorists believe that in terms of shaping the leader's behavior
Forces in the situation are more important than the leader's personal characteristics
A contingency leadership perspective is that the leader's behavior is profoundly influenced by the
In Fiedler's contingency theory, the most important dimension of the situation for determining situational control is
The general point of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership is that they best style of leadership is determined by
The situation in which a leader works
Following Fiedler's contingency model, a leader can increase situational control by
Increasing his or her position power
Division manager Pedro believes strongly in the path-goal theory of leadership, so he engages in behaviors that
Complement subordinates' environment and abilities.
The general thrust of path-goal theory is to specify what the leader must do to
Achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation
In path-goal theory, the directive leader improves morale when
The task is unclear
In path-goal theory, the participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of
Well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetivite tasks.
A suggestion to the leader based on path-goal theory is for the leader to
Reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals
The situational leadership model II emphasizes contingency factors relating to
Characteristics of group members
According to the situational model II, effective leaders manage their relationship with a subordinate
On a given task
The "coaching" style of leadership in the situational leadership model II is described as
High on directing and high on supporting behaviors
According to the situational leadership model II, the directing style is the most effective when team members are
Low in competence but high on commitment
According to the normative decision model, leaders must choose a style that brings about the correct degree of ________ when making decisions
The contingency factors in the normative decision model are
According to the normative decision model, when group development is a high priority, the leader
Relies more on the group to make decisions
What is the most recommended approach to leadership during a crisis
Lead with compassion
What is the least recommended approach to leadership during a crisis?
Be a transactional leader
The general purpose of disaster planning is to
Prevent a crisis
A key part of evidence-based leadership or management is to
Translate principles into practice
Plant manager Kristina practices evidence-based leadership when she
Uses leadership practices proven to be effective
Adapting to changing times is the most important for which approach to leadership?
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