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AP Human Geography - Industrialization
Terms in this set (61)
The clustering of productive activities and people for mutual advantage
Break of Bulk Point
a place where goods are transferred from one mode of transport to another, for example the docks where goods transfer from ship to truck
Bulk Reducing Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Bulk Gaining Industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs.
the ability of a party to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another party
A model that describes how economic, political, and/or cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant regions, and more marginal or dependent regions
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
is a branch of geography which refers to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants
tourism to exotic or threatened areas to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
An industry whose location is not strongly influenced by access to materials and/or markets, and can operate in a wide range of locations.
Friction of Distance
the increase in time and cost that accompanies an increase in distance.
is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
Human Development Index
A metric to measure the level of development of every country. Utilizes life expectancy at birth, average years of school and GNI per capita.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
The fundamental facilities and systems serving an area. (Roads, ports, bridges, airports, train tracks and stations etc.)
the part of an economy that is neither taxed, nor monitored by any form of government. (garage sales or street vendors)
International Division of Labor
The spatial relocation of manufacturing from the national to the global scale. Many manufacturing jobs have been transferred from MEDC's to LEDC'S as transnational corporations seek to maximize profit by taking advantage of cheaper labour costs.
Just in Time Production
Process where products and inventory are shipped so that they are received only when needed, in order to minimize warehouse costs
Least Coast Theory
the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization to three critical expenses; labor, transportation and agglomeration
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
Refers to the economic control that MDCs are sometimes believed to have over LDCs
the practice of basing some of a company's processes or services overseas, so as to take advantage of lower costs.
Subset of tertiary sector, includes service jobs concerned with R&D, management, and administration.
The work activities that involve research and development of new products
The work activities that involve taking a raw product and producing something else; industry
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
Part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
companies that operate factories in countries other than where they are heaquartered
state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low
Weberian Analysis (Synonym of Least Cost Theory)
the location of manufacturing plant is based on the owners desire to minimize three categories of costs
Example: transportation, labor, and agglomeration
World System Theory (Wallerstein)
suggests there is a world economic system comprised of core, semi-periphery and periphery in which some countries benefit while others are exploited.
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
the basic material from which a product is made.
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
Industrial sector which EXPORTS all or nearly all of its production
Industrial sector that produces goods to be used within the country
Standard of Living
the degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community.
the average period that a person may expect to live.
Infant Mortality Rate
is the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births
Births per 1000 women
The total percentage of the population of an area at a particular time aged seven years or above who can read and write with understanding.
Expected Years of Schooling
number of years a child of school entrance age can expect to spend in a given level of education
Gender Inequality Index
measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development
a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system
Feminization of Poverty
the phenomenon that women represent disproportionate percentages of the world's poor
a type of banking service that is provided to unemployed or low-income individuals, or groups who otherwise have no other access to financial services.
a small sum of money lent at low interest to a new business.
Millennium Development Goals
the world's time-bound targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while promoting gender equality, education, and environmental sustainability.
Free trade agreement between Canada, United States and Mexico
A political union to which the member states of the EEC are evolving. It envisions the eventual establishment of common economic, foreign, security, and justice policies.
period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced,
parts of the northeastern and midwestern US that are characterized by declining industry, aging factories, and a falling population
the southern US from California to Florida, noted for resort areas and for the movement of businesses and population into these states from the colder northern states.
refers to a center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based quaternary industry.
International Division of Labor
The term was coined by theorists seeking to explain the spatial shift of manufacturing industries from advanced capitalist countries to developing countries
Export Processing Zones
Zones established by many countries in the peripherary and semi-peripherary where that offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade/investments
acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
Asian Dragons AKA Asian Tigers
Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore-nations that became economic powers in the 1970's and 1980's
is an international organization dedicated to providing financing, advice and research to developing nations to aid their economic advancement.
Involved in the extraction of natural resources. For example farming, fishing, mining.