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Billy Sunday

A fundamentalist preacher and former baseball player who taught people about the evils of alcohol; a very powerful person who supported the Prohibition movement.

Red Scare

period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infiltration of communists in the US government

A. Mitchell Palmer

U.S. Attorney General who directed the FBI and federal agents to conduct raids on suspected Communists

Sacco and Vanzetti

two Italian-born anarchists, unfairly tried and convicted for the armed robbery and murder of two pay-clerks in Massachusetts in 1920

Emergency Quota Act

limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted to the United States to 3% of that immigrants' nationality's population in 1910

Immigration Act

This was passed in 1924 which cut quotas for foreigners from 3% to 2% of the total number of immigrants in 1890. Also prevented Japanese immigration.

Prussian Poles

arrived in America first, having been driven out of their homeland in part by the anti-Catholic policies of 1870s Germany; many of these early immigrants arrived in the U.S. intended to stay for they were fleeing religious persecution & economic turmoil

Russian and Austrian Poles

Wanted to earn enough money in America to return home and buy land

American Warsaw

nickname for Polish-catholic groups in Chicago who offered social services to immigrants

Eighteenth Amendment

established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing this, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes).

Volstead Act

Provided a system for enforcing the 18th amendment, but was largely ignored, especially in big cities

Wet and Dry

some states and numerous counties passed "dry" laws, which controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol. The big cities were generally "wet," (no control on the sale of alcohol) for they had a large immigrant vote accustomed to the free flow of alcohol; 1914, 1/3 of America was dry


Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally

Home Brew

an alcoholic beverage (especially beer) made at home

Bathtub Gin

An alcoholic drink distilled in private homes, usually in the bathtub

Noble Experiment

What Woodrow Wilson referred to prohibition as

Al Capone

United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

St. Valentine's Day Massacre

1929: Capone's men executed 7 members of the O'Banion gang. Ended Chicago's Beer War. The killing allowed Capone to show his control over the city so violence was not as necessary.

Lindbergh Law

made interstate abduction in certain circumstances a death-penalty offense

John Dewey

United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education

John T. Scopes

Agreed to challenge the law banning the teaching of evolution in public schools. Believed that it was denying his right to personal and religious freedom

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school

Clarence Darrow

Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs

The Man Nobody Knows

a book written by Bruce Barton in 1925; presents Jesus as "the founder of modern business," in an effort to make the Christian story accessible to businessmen of the time.

Babe Ruth

He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees. He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports.

Jack Dempsey

was the most famous heavy-weight boxing champion of the 1920s. he helped make boxing a big money sport.

Henry Ford

American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

Frederick W. Taylor

Engineer and inventor who sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management and especially time-management studies; Principles of Scientific Management

Model T

first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black

Orville and Wilbur Wright

bicycle mechanics from Dayton, Ohio who built and flew the first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903.

Charles Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean

The Great Train Robbery

A 1903 black and white silent western film that was 14 minutes long and the first film to tell a coherent story. Due to its success it is credited for the creating Hollywood and the success of the movie industry.

The Birth of a Nation

One of the first classic full-length "moving-pictures," it glorified the KKK and defamed blacks and carpetbaggers.

The Jazz Singer

1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.

Margaret Sanger

she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.


Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior

Sigmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

Jelly Roll Morton

Creole pianist, composer, songwriter, and hustler from New Orleans. "First Jazz Composer." Recorded with the "Red Hot Peppers" in the mid 1920's.

Langston Hughes

A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"

Marcus Garvey

head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, he urged black economic cooperation, and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other businesses

H. L. Mencken

Baltimore writer who criticized the supposedly narrow and hypocritical values of American society

F. Scott Fitzgerald

writer of "This Side of Paradise" and "The Great Gatsby" who coined the term "Jazz Age"

Ernest Hemingway

Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms

Sinclair Lewis

American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927). He was the first American to receive (1930) a Nobel Prize for literature.

William Faulkner

An author in the 1930s who wrote about the history of the deep south; wrote "The Sound and the Fury" and "As I Lay Dying".

Ezra Pound

poet who expressed disillusionment with the ideals of an earlier time and the materialism of the business orientated culture

T. S. Elliot

poet, wrote "The Waste Land", one of most influential poems of the century

E. E. Cummings

wrote playful poetry, wrote about how everyone needs to take responsibility for themselves

Eugene O'Neill

America's great playwright of tragedy; author of "The Iceman Cometh," "Long Day's Journey into Night," and "Moon for the Misbegotten'

Louis Armstrong

leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.

Frank Lloyd Wright

Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.


buying a stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest

Andrew Mellon

One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.

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