Terms in this set (70)
1) Protists are alike in that all are
2) All of the following groups had taxonomic significance in the past, but only one is now considered to be a diverse clade. Which group is it?
3) Which of the following statements concerning living phytoplanktonic organisms are true?
D) 2, 3, and 5
4) Biologists have discovered the kingdom Protista to be paraphyletic. Which of the following statements is true, and consistent with this conclusion?
A) Various combinations of prokaryotic ancestors gave rise to different lineages of protists.
5) The strongest evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic organelles is the similarity between extant prokaryotes and which of the following?
B) mitochondria and chloroplasts
6) According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?
B) from engulfed, originally free-living prokaryotes
7) Which of the following statements is consistent with the hypothesis that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as prokaryotic endosymbionts? Such organelles
E) A, C, and D
8) Which process allows nucleomorphs to be first reduced, and then lost altogether, without the loss of any genetic information from the host cell that ultimately surrounds the nucleomorph?
a. horizontal gene transfer
9) Which organisms represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic plastids found in eukaryotes?
10) The chloroplasts of modern plants are thought to have been derived according to which sequence?
A) cyanobacteria → green algae → green plants
11) The evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes probably
E) A, B, and C
12) The goal in classifying organisms should be to create categories that reflect the evolutionary histories of organisms. What system would be best to use?
D) a system that uses as many kingdoms as necessary to be accurate
13) The current state of the revision of "protistan" taxonomy is an example of which feature of good scientific practice?
A) the need to suspend judgment until enough evidence is available to make an informed decision
14) A mixotroph loses its plastids yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely accounts for its continued survival?
C) It engulfs organic material by phagocytosis.
15) Biologists suspect that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because
b. almost all eukaryotes have mitochondria, whereas only autotrophic eukaryotes generally have plastids.
16) Dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates are placed in the clade Alveolata because they all
e. have membrane-bounded sacs under their plasma membrane
17) In ciliates, the process that produces genetic variation through the exchange of nuclei is
18) In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haploid forms alternate with
d. multicellular diploid forms.
19) Which protists form colorful, multinucleate masses?
B) plasmodial slime molds
20) Assuming that all of the flagella found among the various types of protists require the same amount of ATP per unit time to operate, and assuming that all of an individual protist's flagella are in use simultaneously, then which of these protists should use the greatest amount of ATP per unit time to move about?
21) Which of the following groups does not include many planktonic species?
22) Organisms classified as Euglenozoa have previously been classified as protozoans, protista, plants, and animals. Why the confusion?
E) A, B, and C
23) When a protist possesses two flagella, both are generally used for propulsion. Assuming that a flagellum containing a crystalline rod cannot undulate back and forth, and assuming that two undulatory flagella can produce more effective locomotion than can a single flagellum, which of these organisms should have the least effective locomotion?
24) Which two genera have members that can evade the human immune system by frequently changing their surface proteins?
B) 1 and 4
25) Which of the following marine organisms produce potent neurotoxins that cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and create severe respiratory irritation to humans along the shore?
26) Which structure(s) consist(s), at least in part, of DNA?
Trypanosoma kinetoplast chlorarachniophytes nucleomorph
27) A paramecium is a
28) Which of these groups includes multicellular organisms?
29) Which group(s) within the Alveolata include(s) members that are important in ocean food webs, cause(s) red tides that kill many fish, and may even be carnivorous?
30) Which of the following statements concerning protists is false?
b. The organism that causes malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the tsetse fly.
31) Which of the following is not characteristic of ciliates?
c. They can exchange genetic material with other ciliates by the process of mitosis.
32) Which process results in genetic recombination, but is separate from the process wherein the population size of paramecium increases?
33) Why is the filamentous morphology of the water molds considered a case of convergent evolution with the hyphae of fungi?
c. Filamentous shape is an adaptation for a nutritional mode as a decomposer.
34) The Irish potato famine was caused by an organism that belongs to which group?
35) Which of these groups consist of parasitic flagellated cells, such as Trypanosoma, the organism that causes sleeping sickness?
C. heterotrophic (by absorption)
38) phagocytic euglenids that possess functional chloroplasts
39) amoebozoans that do not possess endosymbionts
D. heterotrophic (by ingestion)
40) Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer?
41) A certain unicellular eukaryote has a siliceous (glasslike) shell and autotrophic nutrition. To which group does it belong?
42) Which of the following are actual mutualistic partnerships that involve a protist and a host organism?
e. A, B, and D
43) Concerning diatoms' potential use as drug-delivery systems, which anatomical feature would seem to be most important?
c. the porous nature of their cell walls
44) The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
D) brown algae
45) A large seaweed that floats freely on the surface of deep bodies of water would be expected to lack which of the following?
46) The following are all characteristic of the water molds (Oomycot(A) except
E) a feeding plasmodium.
47) Theoretically, which two of the following present the richest potential sources of silica?
C) 2 and 3
48) Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group?
49) Which two heterotrophic organisms most commonly derive nutrition from endosymbiotic relationships with photosynthetic protists?
A) 4 and 5
50) Which of the following produce the dense glassy ooze of the deep-ocean floor?
51) A snail-like, coiled, porous shell of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?
52) What provides the best rationale for not classifying the slime molds as fungi? Their
A) (DNA &) SSU -rRNA sequences.
53) Which taxonomic group containing eukaryotic organisms is thought to be directly ancestral to the plant kingdom?
E) green algae
54) What makes certain red algae appear red?
B) They possess pigments (phycoerythrin) which reflects and transmits red light.
55) The structure and biochemistry of chloroplasts in red algae are most like the structure and biochemistry of chloroplasts in which of the following organisms?
d. green algae
56) A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This alga probably belongs to which group?
C) red algae
57) If blue light is the component of the visible spectrum that can penetrate to the greatest depth in water, then what should be expected of photosynthetic protists that survive at great depths?
A) They should absorb blue light preferentially.
58) Members of the green algae often differ from members of the plant kingdom in that some green algae
B) are unicellular.
59) have one hairy and one smooth flagellum
60) have two identical, functional flagella, roughly parallel to each other and emerging from about the same site
61) possess more than two identical, functional flagella
62) have one normal and one crystalline-rod-containing flagellum
63) have one flagellum oriented at 90 degrees to the second flagellum
1) Which term most accurately describes the nutritional mode of healthy P. bursaria?
2) Which term accurately describes the behavior of Paramecium species that lack zoochlorellae in an aquarium with light coming from one side only?
D) negative phototaxis
3) Which term best describes the symbiotic relationship of well-fed P. bursaria to their zoochlorellae?
4) The motility that permits P. bursaria to move toward a light source is provided by
D) many cilia.
5) A P. bursaria cell that has lost its zoochlorellae is said to be aposymbiotic. It might be able to replenish its contingent of zoochlorellae by ingesting them without subsequently digesting them. Which of the following situations would be most favorable to the reestablishment of resident zoochlorellae, assuming compatible Chlorella are present in P. bursaria's habitat?
B) abundant light, abundant bacterial prey
6) A P. bursaria cell that has lost its zoochlorellae is aposymbiotic. If aposymbiotic cells have population growth rates the same as those of healthy, zoochlorella-containing P. bursaria in well-lit environments with plenty of prey items, then such an observation would be consistent with which type of relationship?
7) Theoretically, P.bursaria can obtain zoochlorella either vertically (via the asexual reproduction of its mother cell) or horizontally (by ingesting free-livingChlorella from its habitat). Consider a P. bursaria cell containing zoochlorellae, but whose habitat lacks free-living Chlorella. If this cell subsequently undergoes many generations of asexual reproduction, if all of its daughter cells contain roughly the same number of zoochlorellae as it had originally contained, and if the zoochlorellae are all haploid and identical in appearance, then what is true?
C) The zoochlorellae also reproduced asexually, at a fairly constant rate over time.