History/Geography - Chapter 2
North America Cold Lands to the North
Terms in this set (68)
the area between the North Pole and the northern timberline of North America, Europe, and Asia
also known as the northern lights
the smallest and coldest ocean on earth
large masses of ice that flow slowly over land
piece of a glacier that has moved down a mountain or across a polar region and broken off into the sea; the visible part is only a fraction of its total size
Most of the Northern Hemisphere's icebergs come from
Erik the Red
a Viking from Norway; founded Greenland's first European settlement
animals that thrive in the Arctic waters
small whales whose males have a single spiraled tusk
strange-looking birds; sometimes called sea parrots because of their brightly colored beaks and feet
these seals have coarse, frost-proof hair and a thick layer of blubber to keep them warm, as well as a dense coat of fur that keeps water from penetrating to their skin
thick layer of fat
the coldest regions of the earth
The tundra of North America includes:
part of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and a large number of islands in the Arctic Ocean and the Bearing Sea.
Land of the Midnight Sun
in the summer, the sun shines on the tundra all day and all night, giving it this nickname
permanently frozen ground
two kinds of plants, fungi and algae, growing together; some of the hardiest plants on earth; important source of food for the animals of the tundra
the world's smallest tree
a sea bird that migrates farther than any other bird
arctic bird that has a mat of short feather on its feet that serve as snowshoes
Other birds that live on the tundra are:
the snowy owl, several kinds of gulls, the snow goose, and the Canada goose.
large, cattlelike mammals that stand about five feet high
North American reindeer
big, shaggy; member of the dog family; live in family packs
one of the widest ranging land mammals; small body, short legs and muzzle, and rounded ears help it conserve body heat
little rodents four or five inches long that look like fat, round mice
people of northern Alaska; an Indian word which was once thought to mean "eaters of raw meat" but is now believed to refer to snowshoes
people in Greenland and Arctic Canada prefer to be called this; means "the people"
long, hooded jackets made of different types of fur
snow houses and sod houses
gave the inhabitants of the Arctic a good way to travel long distances over ice and snow
The dog was
the only kind of animal that was domesticated (tamed)
one-man boat constructed of sealskin stretched over a frame
lare open boat made of skins stretched over a frame; used for long hunting trips and seated about a dozen people
used for hunting; had a barbed head attached to a long shaft, often with a kind of cord attached for retrieval
Sir Wilfred Grenfell
perhaps the most famous missionary to the Canadian Inuits and their neighbors
Many Eskimos have moved into towns and villages today because
there are not enough animals left on the tundra for them to hunt to support themselves.
Russian word meaning "forest"; cold northern woods
boreal means "northern"; another common term for the taiga
cone-bearers; the oldest and largest trees in the world
trees that keep their leaves all year
some of the few conifers that grow in the very cold areas near the Arctic Circle
has needles that give off a fragrant aroma as they dry; often a favorite for Christmas trees
the resin (gummy substance) that comes from the blisters on the balsam fir's bark; used in medicine and art
the most numerous and varied trees in the world
these trees lose their leaves in the fall
North America's largest rodent; they have done more than any other animal to shape the landscape of the North American continent
among the largest and most powerful birds in the world
called "king of the birds"
not bald; the feathers on its head are white; bald originally meant "white-headed"
The Indians used birch bark for
canoes and baskets, and very thin strips of it have sometimes been used as a substitute for paper.
long, runnerless sleds
mixture of dried meat pounded together with fat and berries
soft leather shoes
people might have received their tribal name because of the way a certain seam on their moccasins puckered
Ojibwa have often been called the
Five American Indian tribes of the Far North are:
Cree, Ottawa, Yellowknife, Beaver, and Ojibwa
The children of the people of the Far North learned how to survive from
their parents, who taught them how to survive in the wilderness.
Boys were taught to be
watchful, peaceable, self-reliant hunters and to keep their emotions under control.
Girls learned from
the example of the women. They would try their best to do things the way they had seen their mothers do them before.
If children stole, lied, or disobeyed,
the parents were careful to punish them.
the point beyond which trees cannot grow because of the extreme cold, type of soil, and other factors
aurora borealis; light up the night sky; can often be seen as far south as the northern part of the United States
the world's largest island; lies within the frigid waters of the North Atlantic and Arctic oceans
Greenland is over three time as large as
the state of Texas
Most of Greenland is
covered by a layer of ice which is an average of about one mile thick; in some places the ice is over two miles thick.
the treeless Arctic plains north of the timberline; most of it is north of the Arctic Circle