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62 terms

Chapter 2 JONES

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Tears are considered to be part of the
first line of defense
nonspecific defenses
A specific defense for the body is
sensitized T-lymphocytes
The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response to
any tissue injury
Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response include
histamine & prostoglandins
Which of the following result directly from the release of chemical mediators following a moderate burn injury?
pain
increased cappilary permiability
Granuloma
a small mass of cells with a necrotic center, which may develop as part of the immune response
Edema associated with inflammation results directly from
increased fluid and protein in the interstitial compartment
The warmth and redness related to the inflammatory response results from:
increased blood flow into the area
Order of inflammatory response immediately after tissue injury
1.Transient vasoconstriction
2.Dilation of blood vessels
3.Hyperemia
4. Increased permeability of blood vessels
5. Migration of leukocytes to the area
The process of phagocytes involves the
Ingestion of foreign material and cell debris by leukocytes
Systemic effects of severe inflammation include
fatigue, anorexia and mild fever
Leukocytosis
increased white blood cells in the blood
Which of the following statements applies to fever?
it results from the release of pyrogens into the circulation
Mechanisms to bring an elevated body temperature down to the normal level include
general cutaneous vasodilation
Replacement of damaged tissue by similar functional cells is
regeneration
Scar tissue consists primarily of
collagen fibers
Which of the following promotes rapid healing?
closely approximated edges of a wound
Which of the following is the best description of granulation tissue?
fibroblast and vascular endothelial cells
Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly
decrease capillary permeability
Patients take glucocorticoids for long periods of time are NOT going to develop
increased leukocyte production
Which of the following drugs relieves fever and some types of pain but is NOT an anti-inflammatory agent?
Acetaminophen
A burn area in which the epidermis and part of the dermis is destroyed is classified as
deep partial-thickness
A woman has burns on the anterior surfaces of her right arm, chest, and right leg. The body surface area (BSA) or the percentage of body surface area burned is approximately
22.5%
The characteristic appearance of a full-thickness burn is
dry, firm, charred or hard white surface
A major source of infection in burn areas is
microbes surviving in the hair follicles in the burn area
A large burn area predisposes to decreased blood pressure because
fluid and protein shift out of the vascular compartment
During an inflammatory response, erythema is caused by
vasodilation in the area
The advantages of applying a biosynthetic skin substitute to a large area of full-thickness burns includes:
reduced risk of infection
decreased loss of plasma protein and fluid
more rapid healing
Purulent exudates usually contain
numerous leukocytes, bacteria and cell debris
Isoenzymes in the circulating blood
often indicate the precise location of inflammatory response
A serous exudate is best described as a
thin, watery, colorless exudate
Systematic manifestations of an inflammatory response include
elevated C-reactive protein & leukocytosis
Indicators of a general inflammatory response would include
elevated C-reactive protein
Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids such as predistones may cause
atrophy of lymphoid tissue
decreased protein synthesis
Application of ice to an injured knee reduces edema by
causing local vasoconstriction
Healing of large areas of skin loss (including dermis and epidermis) would be most successful through
covering the area with biosynthetic skin substitute
Prostoglandins are produced from ____ and cause ____
mast cells; vasodilation and pain
The number of neutrophils in the blood is increased significantly
in order to promote phagocytosis
An abcess contains
purulent exudates
Nonspecific agents that protect uninfected cells against viruses are called
interferons
Causes of inflammation include
direct physical damage such as cuts & sprains
ischemia or infarction
allergic reactions
infection
In normal capillary exchange, what is net hydrostatic pressure based on?
the difference between the hydrostatic pressure within the capillary as compared with the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid
The cardinal signs of inflammation include all EXCEPT
nausea
Drugs that have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities include:
COX-2 indicators (NSAIDs)
ibuprofen (NSAIDs)
aspirin (ASA)
Aspirin (ASA) is discouraged for treatment of viral infections in children because of:
the risk of developing Rye's syndrome
Systemic manifestations of inflammation include all EXCEPT
chest pain
Which of the following cellular elements found in the inflammatory response are responsible for phagocytes?
macrophages
Which chemical mediator is involved in prolonging the inflammatory response?
leukotrienes
Potential complications after healing by scar formation include all the following EXCEPT
increased hair growth
All of the following are correct statements regarding wound healing EXCEPT
granulation tissue forms a permanent replacement for damaged tissue
Which of the following statements regarding inflammation is incorrect?
disorders are named using the ending -sarcoma to indicate inflammation
Which of the following helps to localize and contain the foreign material during an inflammatory response?
fibrinogen
Why is an application of cold recommended as part of the RICE first aid measures immediately following an inflammatory response due to injury? Because cold
causes local vasoconstriction to reduce local edema
One goal for current research in tissue engineering is to
create a functional replacement tissue when regeneration is not possible
Identify the proper sequence in the healing process
1. a blood clot forms
2. phagocytes remove foreign material and cell debris
3. granulation tissue grows into the gap
4. new blood vessels form
5. collagen fibers promote formation of a tight strong scar
All are factors that promote healing EXCEPT
advanced age
Identify the correct statements about burns
the severity of the burn depends on the temperature and the duration and extent of the burn
Which statement applies to the recommended emergency care for burns?
cover the burn area with clean, cool or tapid water and remove nonsticking clothing
Inhalation of carbon monoxide is a threat for many burn patients because this gas:
quickly reduces the available oxygen in the blood
Hypermetabolism is common with major burns because of:
increased heat loss from the burn wound
demand for tissue repair
recurrent stress response
How does scar tissue usually cause obstructions to develop in tube-like structures?
scar tissue does not stretch, but rather shrinks in time, causing narrowing
Which of the following is a serious potential complication found only with the anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor drugs?
increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes