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Terms in this set (41)
A collection of cognitive faculties that may include sensation, perception, thinking, consciousness, reasoning, perception and judgement
Evolutionary biologist and physiologist who founded comparative psychology
Who introduced experimental tests into the study of animal learning and brought comparative psychology into the laboratory
behavior should be described scientifically without attributing internal events or hypothetical constructs such as the mind
looks beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning
Learning is a process in which the learner actively builds new ideas from old.
Why study animal cognition?
To understand ourselves, probably adaptive, to improve animal welfare, minimize extinction, habitat conservation
Psychological traits are adaptations that evolved to solve problems in human ancestral environments, and have been passed down through natural or sexual selection
Group that contains lemurs, lorises, galagos, tarsiers, monkeys and apes, including humans
Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, humans
searches for principles that apply the behavior of all animals, including humans
the study of social behavior from a darwinian evolutionary perspective
this method compares a cognitive trait in several closely related species
T or F; Food-storing species of birds have twice as large a hippocampus in relation to their forebrain as do species that do not store food.
play a crucial role in explaining many ecological and evolutionary patters
Organized into functional system like hunger, fear, and sexual behavior called instincts
Amount of brain mass exceeding that related to animal's total body mass
is a measure of relative brain size defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which is hypothesized to be a rough estimate of the intelligence of the animal
not closely related organisms independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt similar environments
traits arising through convergent evolution (different structure, same purpose)
similarity in species of different ancestry as a result of convergent evolution
accumulation of differences among groups which can lead to the formation of new species
traits arising through divergent evolution (same purpose, different structure)
species with similarity in characteristics that are due to shared environments
speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits with which they can exploit a range of divergent environments. (Darwins finches)
morphological, behavioral, physiological or cognitive traits associated with ecological demands that are particular to a species or group of species
a model of evolution which theorizes that most speciation is slow, uniform and gradual.
Proposes that most species will exhibit little change for most of their geological history, then sudden changes occur that are associated with rare significant events.
What is sensation?
an external stimulus, sensory neurons collect the information from the stimuli
ability of an organism to avoid danger. Can involve visual, auditory and olfactory modalities.
Vision, Perception and co-evolution- organisms evolve under the pressures exerted by other predators in their environment
two or more species have very similar poisonous signals and share same anti predation attributes
the mimic shares signals similar to the model but does not have the attribute that makes it poisonous to predators
ex. king snake( harmless) coral snake (poisonous)
Warning coloration, may take in forms of sounds, colors, or scent.
study of neural sensitivity
Signal Detection Theory
measures the way organisms make decision under conditions of uncertainty
limited capacity system
it is impossible to process everything happening in our environment at any one point in time
a filtering mechanism
what we attend to will be selectively processed
searching all at once
look from item to item
a tendency for different individuals of the same speces to have markedly different colors or patters to help the species not be eat all at once.
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