169 terms

CTA 100 Midterm Vocab Review

STUDY
PLAY
information system
composed of people, procedures, software, hardware, data and the Internet
data
unprocessed facts
procedures
rules or guidelines for people to follow when using hardware or software
program/software
a set of step-by-step instructions that tells the computer how to do its work
hardware
the equipment that processes data to create information
Internet
provides a means to connect computers and their users together
system software
enables the application software to interact with computer hardware
operating systems
programs that coordinate computer resources, interface with users, and run applications
utilities
programs that perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources
application software
end-user software; programs that users use to perform tasks
browser
program that connects to websites and displays webpages
word processors
program that prepares written documents
spreadsheets
programs that analyze and summarize numerical data
database managements systems
programs that organize and manage data and information
presentation graphics
program which communicates a message or persuade other people
supercomputers
most powerful type of computer
mainframe computers
large computer banks kept in air-conditioned rooms for use by large companies
midrange computers/servers
less powerful than a mainframe for use by medium size companies or as for database or Internet services
personal computers/PCs
most widely used type of computer for home or small business use
system unit
container that houses most of the electronic components of a computer system
input/output devices
devices that allow the user to communicate with the computer or the computer to communicate with the user
microprocessor
controls and manipulates data to produce information
RAM (random-access memory)
short-term memory storage
secondary storage
holds data and programs even after electric power failures
hard disks
store programs and very large data files
optical discs
use laser technology to store data and programs (includes CDs, DVDs, etc.)
modem
modifies audio, video and other types of data for transmission across the internet
document files
created by word processors to save documents
worksheet files
created by electronic spreadsheets to analyze budgets and predict sales
database files
created by database management programs to contain highly structured and organized data
presentation files
created by presentation graphics programs to save presentation materials
connectivity
capability of your computer to share information with other computers
network
a communications system connecting two or more computers
cloud computing
uses the internet and the web to shift computer activities from a user's computer to computers on the Internet
Internet of things
allows everyday objects embedded with electronic devices to send and receive data
Web 1.0
focused on linking existing resources and information
Web 2.0
allowed for more dynamic content creation on the Internet
Web 3.0
focuses on applications that prepares personalized content for users
online
connected to the Internet
ISPs (Internet Service Providers)
provides access to the Internet for users
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)
location of information on the Internet
protocols
rules for exchanging data between computers
domain name
the specific address where the resource is located
top-level domain/web suffix
part of a domain name following the dot (.com, .co, .net, .org, .edu, etc.)
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
markup language for displaying webpages
links/hyperlinks
connect to other documents online
CSS (Cascading style sheets)
separate reference files for HTML documents to obtain formatting or style information (makes it easier to change the look of a webpage)
JavaScript
a language used with HTML to trigger interactive features
applets
programs that can be downloaded quickly and run by most browsers
web utilities
specialized utilities that making using the Internet faster, safer or easier
plug-ins
programs that are automatically started and operate as part of the browser
filters
a plug-in that blocks access to specific sites
file transfer protocol (FTP)
allows you to efficiently copy files to and from your computer across the Internet
downloading
copying files from the Internet to your computer
uploading
copying files to a connected computer from your computer
internet security suite
a collection of utility programs to maintain security and privacy on the Internet
email/electronic mail
transmission of electronic messages over the Internet
header (email)
contains information about an email like sender's address, the recipient's address. the subject and attachments
attachment
a file attached to an email
client-based email system
requires a special program called an email client to be installed in order to use the system (like Outlook)
web-based email system/webmail
an email system that can be accessed through a browser
virus
a malicious program than can "infect" your computer and make copies of itself
spam
unwelcome email messages
spam blockers/filters
helps you control spam messages so that don't clutter up your inbox
text messaging/SMS
a short plain-text message that can be transmitted easily over phone connections
instant messaging
allows two or more people to interact over the Internet with live communication
social networking
sites focus on connecting people and organizations
blog/web logs
personal websites for communicating on the Internet that allows for commenting, and places most recent posts at the top
microblog
blog that allows only for short posts
webcasts/streaming
play live video over the Internet
podcast
a video program broadcast on the Internet, which is not live-streamed
wiki
allows users to modify or edit information on a site
search services/search engine
allows you to search the Internet for pages on particular topics
spiders
automatic programs that look for new information on the Internet
electronic commerce
buying and selling of goods on the Internet
business-to-business (B2B)
businesses selling goods and services to other businesses
consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
individuals selling goods and services to other individuals
digital cash
Internet cash (purchased credits used to buy products online)
user interface
portion of an application that allows you to control the program
graphical user interface (GUI)
uses graphical elements (rather than plain text) to interact with the user
pointer
the arrow on the screen that allows the user to select icons
icons
graphical elements that allow a user to interact with functions in the program
window
a rectangular area on a screen in which to interact with a program
toolbar
a set of buttons in a window that contains command icons and shortcuts
dialog boxes
provides additional information for the user
tabs
divides a tool bar or ribbon into groups of related commands
ribbons
replaces toolbars and menus
galleries
simplify the process of finding and displaying images
desktop publishing program/page layout program
allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications
image editors
allows a user to modify images
illustration programs
allows a user to create images from scratch
video editors
allows a user to create and edit videos
web authoring software
allows a user to create webpages
WYSIWYG
What you see is what you get
software suite
a collection of programs sold together
language translators
converts programming languages into machine language
multitasking
running multiple programs at the same time
desktop
provides access to computer resources in a GUI
gesture control
ability to control operations on a computer with finger movements
embedded operating system/real-time operation system
operating system embedded in a device
stand-alone/desktop operating system
controls a single desktop or laptop computer
network operating system
controls and coordinates multiple computers
software environment/software platform
another name for the operating system that describes how the system interfaces with programs
open source
code is publicly available so that others can modify and update it
virtual machine
operates as though it was a separate computer
troubleshooting/diagnostic programs
looks for errors in programs and help the user correct them
antivirus programs
program looks for viruses and eliminates them
back-up programs
program makes a copy of data and stores it in a safe place in case the system crashes
file compression programs
program compresses files to make them take up less disk space
tower unit/tower computer
the main part of a desktop computer that contains most of the hardware for the system
ultrabooks
mini notebook computers that are thinner and lighter than most laptops
smartphone
phones with additional computer capabilities like internet access and web browsers
wearable computers
technology that can be worn like smartwatches and activity trackers
system board/mainboard/motherboard
controls communication for the entire system
sockets
connection point for small electronic parts
chips
tiny circuit boards
slots
provide a connection point for specialized cards and boards
bus lines
provide communication pathways for the system
CPU (central processing unit)
microprocessor that contains the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit in personal computers
control unit
tells the rest of the system how to carry out tasks
arithmetic-logic unit
performs arithmetical and logical operations
word
the number of bits that can be accessed at one time by the CPU
clock speed
the number of times a computer can process data in a second
multicore processors
two or more separate CPUs working together
parallel processing
allows the cores of CPU to work together by dividing up tasks that can be run at the same time
coprocessor
specialty chips for specific computing operations (such as a graphics processor)
cache memory
improves processing speed by acting as an extension to RAM
ROM (Read-only memory)
chips that have information stored on them by the manufacturer and cannot be erased or overwritten
flash memory
combines features of RAM and ROM -- can be rewritten, but does not lose information when power is lost
graphics card
provides high quality 3D graphics for games and simulations
network interface cards/network adapter cards
allows computers to connect to a network
SD cards
fingernail sized cards that can be plugged into expansion slots in a phone or tablet
bus width
the number of bits that can travel simultaneously down a bus
system buses
connect CPU to memory on the system board
expansion buses
connect the CPU to other components in the system board including expansion slots
universal serial bus (USB)
a commonly used bus for most computer devices
port
a socket for external devices to connect to a system
cables
connect exterior devices to a system via ports
analog
continuous signals
digital signals
in bits of 0 and 1
bit
a single binary digit
byte
8 bits
hexadecimal system
uses 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F as numbers
decimal system
uses 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 as numbers
binary system
uses only 0 1 as numbers
character encoding standards
includes ASCII and Unicode for encoding letters and symbols
input
any data used by a computer
toggle keys
keys like CTRL or CAPS LOCK that can make one key have additional uses
pointing devices
includes devices like mouses and touch pads that allow direct movement of a cursor on a screen
game controllers
includes devices like joysticks, gaming mice, and motion-sensing devices
stylus
a penlike device that can be used with tablets and mobile devices
handwriting recognition software
converts handwriting (with a stylus) to print
optical scanner
can take images of documents and convert them into an electronic form
UPC code
code used with product scanners on most commercially available products
card reader
a device that reads magnetic strips or chips on credit cards
MaxiCode
a code used by UPS to track packages
RFID reader
reads RFID chips/tags
character reader
a type of program that can read print, such as magnetic ink, optical characters, or bubble sheet readers
digital camera
takes an optical image and converts it to an electronic image
webcam
captures images and video electronically; typically attached to a computer or laptop
voice recognition system
allows computer users to operate devices by voice command; some can convert to text or translate into another language
output
processed data or information
monitor/display
screen that displays softcopy
hardcopy
the output sent to a printer
multifunctional devices
input/output devices with more than one function
VoIP (Voice over IP)/telephony
standard and technologies for communicating by "phone" over the Internet
drone
unmanned aerial vehicle
virtual reality
creates a virtual or immersive experience
ergonomics
study of human factors related to things people use